Archive for the ‘General’ Category

 

May 31

Tesla Model S P90D does the $100 ‘Ludicrous Challenge’

 

What do you think of this?

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After a number of races against supercars on public roads and on drag strips, the Tesla Model S was put to a new quickness test.

Or, actually, a “test subject” – the son of Drag Times’ Brooks Weisblat – was offered by his dad a $100 bill if only he could grab it from its taped position on the inside windshield as the car accelerated from a stop and before it hit 60 mph.

Sound easy?

The P90D can do 0-60 in 3.1 seconds, and well under 3.0 seconds with Ludicrous Speed upgrade (Tesla says 2.8) – and it can pull up to 1.2 g with a clean start.

The video is between a father and his son, in the name of fun, and to make a point about the car.

It is pretty well self-explanatory, so enjoy.

This article appears also at HybridCars.com.

 

May 30

2017 Fusion Energi gets a bump upward in EPA scores

 

Six years after the first Volt, Ford says its Fusion Energi is now good for 21 miles AER. Is there something to be said for purpose-built electrified vehicles?

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The 2017 Ford Fusion Energi plug-in hybrid’s efficiency is incrementally improved over the 2016 model.

With release today on the U.S. EPA’s website of the car’s numbers, the 2017 model get 42 mpg over 38 last year, and 97 MPGe over 88 last year, as well as 22 miles “Elec+Gas” range, over 20 miles for 2016.

This extra 2 miles range is essentially EV range, but the EPA qualifies things because the gas engine – still a 2.0-liter four – can come on briefly in the cycle.

All-electric range is also now 21 versus 19 last year, and in either case, careful drivers may get 21-22 miles range without the gas coming on, assuming their route does not dictate enough power to initiate that.

In the process, Ford noted that with the same 14.0-gallon gas tank size as last year, range of EV plus gas has increased from 550 miles to 610.

And to get the message out, the automaker commissioned a Haris poll, which touts range saying, “Online Harris Poll finds 40 percent of U.S. adult drivers frustrated with their vehicle’s range,” and “Ford now has a plug-in hybrid vehicle that can go further than any other.”

The poll also suggests consumers may have serious misconceptions about plug-in hybrid total gas plus electric range.

“The March 2016 Harris Poll of more than 1,000 U.S. adults also finds Americans believe the longest-range plug-in hybrid can go 261 miles – less than half the Fusion Energi’s range,” says a press release.

Click to expand. 2017 Hyundai numbers not posted yet.

Click to expand. 2017 Hyundai numbers not posted yet.

Well, that un-numbered quantity of American who guessed 261 miles are incorrect, because as you can see the Volt is rated 420 miles, and the 2016 Hyundai Sonata PHEV is good for 600 miles – so it beat the 2016 Fusion Energi, and now the 2017 beats it by 10 miles.

Actually, range is a function largely of fuel tank size. Efficiency wise, the Chevy Volt tops both in “MPGe,” and its 42 mpg equals the Energi’s – though notable is the Energi has a larger engine and is a larger car.

But of course, the goal with the extended-range Volt – which is more attainable than with any PHEV – is to avoid gas. Its 8.9 gallon tank still allows GM’s compact to go more than 900 miles between fill-ups in the hand of users, according to GM Onstar data.

The Volt’s major advantage is the 53-miles EV range which is pure EV, and being a purpose-built plug-in extended-range EV, it can do this, albeit at the expense of size, and rear seat room.

But in any case, there are pros and cons to any choice, and the Fusion Energi is improved over 2016.

This article appears also at HybridCars.com.

Happy Memorial Day everyone!

 

May 27

Consumers want more plug-in electrified vehicle choices, says survey

 

Think the automakers will respond to this data?

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Data mined from a consumer survey yielded several take-away points regarding the upside potential of plug-in electrified vehicles (PEVs).

The survey, conducted from April 1 to April 8 by Consumers Union and the Union of Concerned Scientists, was directed at 1,213 licensed and active drivers in nine states in the Northeast, deemed under-served with PEVs, and California, which absorbs the most PEVs.

In both cases a significant percentage of consumers said they would consider a PEV – which the survey loosely termed “electric vehicles” or “EVs,” but included in these were both plug-in hybrids and all-electric vehicles.

In California, where manufacturers have PEVs uniquely targeted that are not sold in the Northeast, more than 50 percent of respondents were found likely to consider a PEV for their next vehicle purchase, and more than 65 percent are interested in PEVs.

“Many California consumers who might be looking for a new car this summer are primed and ready to purchase an electric vehicle,” said Don Anair, research and deputy director for the UCS Clean Vehicles Program. “These survey results should be encouraging news to automakers who are offering EVs or set to bring new vehicle models to market.”

EVSurv_CA
In the Northeast, the same survey found 35 percent of drivers are likely to consider a PEV for their next vehicle purchase or lease, and 55 percent have some interest in PEV technology.

“Consumers looking for a new vehicle this summer are thinking more about the many benefits of driving on electricity,” said Josh Goldman, lead policy analyst for the UCS Clean Vehicles Program. “More than 65 percent of survey respondents want to see automakers offer more electric options across a variety of classes, including sedans, SUVs and minivans, and over half think that every automaker should offer a plug-in model for sale.”

As Goldman noted, among the respondents, a significant percentage also expressed desire for more models in any case – including sedans, crossovers, SUVs, and minivans.

Today there are scant choices if any, and no plug-in pickup trucks sold by a major manufacturer to consumers.

It has long been shown larger vehicles stand to save much more fuel and emit much less greenhouse gas if made more efficient versus electrifying smaller vehicles that were already relatively efficient to begin with.

As it is, the survey found more than 65 percent of respondents want automakers to offer more electric options across a variety of classes.

EVSurv_NE
Certainly also, they can make use of them. The survey determined this by verifying they had a place to park and plug in. This is not always the case in some urban regions with on-street parking, for some apartment dwellers, and others who cannot be assured a place to park consistently and plug in each night.

Also checked was that respondents needed to carry only four or less passengers, and did not need to haul or tow.

Among respondents fitting these criteria, more than 4 out of 10 households in the Northeast and 44 percent in California could use a PEV with little or no change to their driving habits and vehicle needs.

A statement issued by the Consumers Union and the Union of Concerned Scientists added also that better polices were needed

Automakers and state officials can also do a better job of letting drivers know about existing EV incentives. More than three quarters of California drivers didn’t know the state offers any plug-in electric vehicle incentives, and almost 80 percent weren’t aware of the federal EV tax credit. Together, these programs can lower the purchase price of a plug-in vehicle by over $10,000. Education about incentives is especially important as nearly 13 percent of respondents identified costs as a main barrier to purchasing an EV.

Significant also is the results showing greater acceptance in California correlated to availability of PEVs in that market.

For example, since the beginning of this year, Edmunds.com showed only 1,744 new PEVs available in and near New York City, and only 733 were available in the Boston region.

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By contrast, over the same time period, PEVs within 50 miles of Oakland, Calif. added to over 5,800 options, and 8,200 PEVs were in the Los Angeles area.

Last year California accounted for around half of the country’s sales.

On the other side of the country, the survey shows people would consider what is sold, and more models if they were offered.

Additionally, more than 88 percent of respondents said they would not buy a vehicle without a test drive.

UCS, and infographic.

This article appears also at HybridCars.com.

 

May 26

Five Promised 200-Mile Range EVs That Won’t Break The Bank

 

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To everyone holding out for more electric car range for your money, it appears the industry has heard you.

Just two years ago $35,000 could pay for a nicely equipped EV with 84 EPA-rated miles range, and while that’s still the case, on the horizon are five EVs that could deliver 200 miles for nearly the same outlay.

Despite the fact that 75 percent of drivers only need 40 miles or less per day – the original rationale justifying sub-100-miile EVs – the demand for more is certainly there.

This is true also as certain advocates tout the benefits of smaller, lighter, less-costly batteries in their 100 more-or-less-mile EVs – with some even sneering at those who say they want more range, and thus battery.

But consumers generally do want more, don’t they? Even better is when they can get more for less money, or at least more for the same.

With news coming everyday of automakers scrambling to meet the need – if not with instant gratification – for the new normal of 200 miles for under $40,000, we have five cars counted.

Details on a few are sparse as very little substantiated info is available, but here’s the list.

2017 Chevy Bolt

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Automotive giant General Motors fast tracked its compact crossover that’s surprisingly roomy thanks to smart design and a flat floor encasing a liquid-cooled 60-kWh LG Chem battery.

This one’s first because it will be first to market, with production believed as soon as October – and it had only been shown as a concept in January 2015.

SEE ALSO: GM Document Says 2017 Chevy Bolt Production Starts In October

Priced from $37,500, it won’t have AWD, or Ludicrous Speed or a network of DC fast chargers like a certain other competitor GM does not often name called Tesla, but it looks promising.

The vehicle’s engineers have not been able to disguise obvious pride in the car able to zip to 60 in less than 7 seconds, with a motor that has as high as 97 percent efficiency and promising more than 200 miles EPA rated range.

GM has said it is “not a compliance car,” but more details and dealer ordering are due not very long from now, so stay tuned.

Ford Mystery EV

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Less is known about what Ford has up its sleeve, but its President and CEO Mark Fields contradicted a previous statement that it would not build a 200-mile EV, by saying Ford would seek to lead the class of affordable 200-plus mile EVs.

Consider how far things have come since April 2012 when it was disclosed the battery in the Focus EV cost somewhere between $12,00-$15,000, or $552 and $650 per kilowatt-hour. This was considered outrageous when one could get a gas-powered Focus for $22,000.

SEE ALSO: GM Says Li-ion Battery Cells Down To $145/kWh and Still Falling

On April 28, Fields was asked about Tesla and General Motors, and it was then that he gave a statement widely interpreted to mean a car is in the works.

“Our EVs come down to making sure we’re the best or among the leaders in those areas,” Fields said. “When you look at some of the competition, clearly that’s something we’re developing for.”

Little more is known about when it will be introduced, but in December, Ford announced investment of $4.5 billion in EV research with and add 13 new electrified vehicles by 2020.

With a commitment like that, could Ford have more than one EV in mind? Could one be called the Model E, a name Tesla wanted? We shall see.

Next Nissan Leaf

nissan-ids-concept

Nissan has told Japanese media a few times “range anxiety” will no longer be an issue, and it has a 250-mile-capable battery in a test mule, but little is known about the next Leaf.

SEE ALSO: Nissan IDS Concept Foreshadows 60-kWh Next-Generation Leaf

You see, Nissan has a conflict of interest. It is called “cannibalization” of sales, and its present concern is selling product in hand, which consists of the 84-107-mile 2016 Leaf.

It’s believed the generation two Leaf could be here by 2018, is to be more “mainstream” in appearance, and priced in line with the competitors.

SEE ALSO: Nissan Leaf Ad Takes a Shot At Tesla Model 3

We’ll know more when Nissan decides it is in its best interest to share.

Others have told Nissan it is in its best interest to rush it to the market given the Bolt is about to steal its thunder in a big way.

Let’s see if that happens.

2018 Hyundai Crossover SUV

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Although news made the rounds this week that Hyundai will launch a 200-mile EV by 2018, it had said something similar in April to Korean media.

Even as the automaker is preparing a 110-mile Ioniq (pictured), and telling media its data shows this is enough range, the outlook has changed.

The new SUV is expected to get its own platform, and reports have it that range could go as high as 300 miles in time, though 200 is the immediate goal.

Also likely is Kia will use the platform and make its own branded 200-mile EV, but so far we have not seen this announced.

2018 Tesla Model 3

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Last, and not needing an introduction is the Model 3 which arguably deserves credit for setting this new 200-mile benchmark.

Shown at the end of March, it has been anticipated for many years, and is a culmination of a multi-stage plan Tesla has had to make a “mass market” EV.

SEE ALSO: Tesla Unveils Model 3

Prices start at $35,000, range starts at 215 miles, and the line starts way back there … now with more than 370,000 reservation holders and counting

Tesla has said to look for it by late 2017, but it’s believed it’s not likely to get here before 2018.

In all, 2018 and forward is shaping up to look like a good year for the EV market, and by then what will be have? A dozen or more EVs in this price-for-performance class?

Time will tell.

This article appears also at HybridCars.com.

 

May 25

Hyundai Preparing 200-Mile Electric Car For 2018

 

Did the Bolt and Model 3 change Hyundai’s mind? Last time we sat down with them they were saying why 110 miles was enough.

By Jason Siu

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Hyundai will introduce electric vehicles with longer range before the end of the decade.

In a recent interview with Autoblog, Hyundai’s director of its eco-vehicle performance development group, Byung Ki Ahn, confirmed that a 200-mile Hyundai electric vehicle will be introduced by 2018. Range will go even further by 2020, when Hyundai plans on adding a 250-mile electric vehicle to its lineup.

That’s a major improvement compared to the Hyundai Ioniq EV (pictured) that has a 110-mile range, set to launch later this year in the U.S. The Korean automaker is investing heavily into alternative powertrains, promising to offer 26 new green models by 2020 that includes plug-in hybrids, hybrids and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.

SEE ALSO: Hyundai’s 2017 Ioniq Electric May Get Half the Range of Chevy Bolt

Both the Chevrolet Bolt and the Tesla Model 3 will offer at least a 200-mile all-electric range, with the Bolt arriving this year and the Model 3 scheduled for production by the end of 2017.

The Hyundai Ioniq is offered in three flavors: standard hybrid, plug-in hybrid and all-electric.

Autoblog

This article originally appeared at AutoGuide.com

 

May 24

17 Hurdles Electrified Vehicles Have Had To Overcome

 

Many articles have been published about slower than expected plug-in electrified vehicle market acceptance this decade, but these tend to highlight only a few aspects of a very complicated picture.

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Looked at from a broad overview, one could alternately say it’s a wonder plug-in hybrids and all-electric vehicles (PEVs) have done as well as they have – or despite the flak they faced, the fact that they have taken hold as well as they have lends credence to their viability.

Tesla’s limited-production 2008 Roadster deserves mention as a first of the new li-ion EVs, but the major manufacturer effort arguably began with the 2011 extended range Chevy Volt and 2011 all-electric Nissan Leaf launched in December 2010. The Mitsubishi i-MIEV had been launched in July 2009 in Japan, and came to the U.S. in December 2011. Since then a submarket has developed that’s working to gain greater traction.

Last year the U.S. bought 17.39 million passenger vehicles, and of these 0.66 percent, or 114,248 were PEVs. Presently, there are being sold 14 plug-in hybrids and 12 all-electric vehicles, with several being offered in limited markets and the lion’s share of sales are carried by a handful of models.

From the inception of this present age of battery powered cars, hopes and hype were uttered by those working toward a future they projected would begin a dam break in the bulwark held by petroleum power.

Plug-in cars are quiet, fun, have zero tailpipe emissions, and upstream emissions are better than most of not all conventional cars tailpipe plus upstream emissions. They also reduce need for foreign oil, and are an emerging technology with economic potential.

Plug-in cars are quiet, fun, have zero tailpipe emissions, and upstream emissions are better than most if not all conventional cars’ tailpipe plus upstream emissions, depending on region. They also reduce need for foreign oil, and are an emerging technology with economic potential.

In 2011 President Barack Obama set a goal of one-million PEVs on American roads by December 2015, but this came and went with the tally at around 400,000.

Following is a long list of issues plug-in cars have had to face in gaining acceptance. It is not comprehensive, but touches on variables – whether ill-founded, or valid – that affected the momentum.

If this market is to break much beyond its present 0.75 percent of U.S. sales, the goal will be to create positive synergies leading to mass market acceptance.

In order to cram all these points in, we had to keep each brief, so please forbear lack of detail. Each could be its own article, but it may help with perspective to put them all on one page.

Price

Not helping things in 2011 was a Chevy Volt that started at just below $40,000 with nice examples knocking on the back door of $50,000 with taxes and tags. The Leaf also started in the middle 30s and could run into the 40s. A $7,500 federal tax credit and potential state incentives offset this some, but the cars came in higher than earlier projections had estimated and were pricey for bread-and-butter brands.

In 2013 Nissan introduced a $6,000 cheaper S trim level, and in 2014 Chevy took $5,000 off but a stigma had already been set in some consumers’ minds. Other PEVs like the Ford Focus Electric also started at just below $40,000, until its maker chipped that down a couple times to $10,000 less.

Beyond this, essentially all plug-in vehicles come with a sizable cost premium over comparable internal combustion models, or even regular hybrids due largely to greater complexity and battery costs.

The goal from the start was that economies of scale and technological improvements would bring costs in line with conventional vehicles. However, prices have been perceptibly higher counteracting potential fuel-cost savings while potentially saving on scheduled maintenance, in an otherwise qualified decision.

Some Consumers Ineligible For Federal Credit

A federal consumer tax credit from $2,500 to $7,500 depending on battery size has been available, but not everyone has been able to collect it.

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Because PEVs cost more, the government followed a precedent set with regular hybrids, but the program has its drawbacks. If a person’s tax liability the year the car is purchased is not enough, some or all of the tax credit is forfeited. And even if a person can claim it, the extra outlay must still be fronted. This is related to the price issue, but its own subtopic.

The idea of making the tax credit a point-of-sale rebate has been seen as more fair, but it has not had the political traction to be made law.

Spotty State Credits

Along with the federal program, a number of states have varying plans for their residents to claim a rebate or incentive of some kind. These have varied from the highest offering $6,000, to other states that offer zero.

It is a random outcome of states’ rights to set their own policies. The obvious positive outcome is some get essentially free money. The flip side is others don’t and this can affect whether a consumer is willing to buy a PEV. One of the biggest programs in Georgia temporarily made the Atlanta region Nissan’s number one market in 2014 over the San Francisco Bay area, but when that was cut back, Georgia was no longer Nissan’s top market.

First-Generation Technology

Some people have to have the latest and newest, but these tend to be in the minority when talking about the “second largest purchase” an average consumer will make. The thinking of fence sitters includes, 1) Give them time to get any bugs out, 2) Wait for discounts or deals, 4) Wait until improvements come for better value for the money.

Battery Concerns

Consumers to this day are still uneasy about battery longevity. PEV batteries do tend to lose some range over time, which is not said of a fuel tank which does not shrink with time. The earliest major manufacturer PEVs are now six years old, and the Volt has had a better track record with its liquid cooling and conservative setup. The Leaf has had more issues.

Resale Value

Plug-in cars were a challenge to lease underwriters from the start as their residual values were not established as were those for mature-market internal combustion cars. Since then, auction prices for off-lease Leafs, and used Volts, and other PEVs have been relatively lower.

Leaf

Complicating things is the prospect of accepting a car which may have less life in the battery than when new, and also that new tech is expected to render used PEVs closer to outdated sooner.

SEE ALSO: Nissan Leaf Ranked Worst For Early On Resale Devaluation

The 2017 Chevy Bolt will be offered this year for about $2,500 less than a 107-mile 2016 Leaf but with around twice the range, while quicker, and new in its lifecycle.

Leasing has been a work-around to reduce back-end liability as the market develops.

Charge Time

Mainstream consumers accustomed to the internal combustion engine (ICE) may also take pause at the prospect of waiting for a car to recharge. On the other hand it is a convenience to be able to charge from home and if it’s done overnight, that is not like lost time as the car would have been sitting anyway. But if it’s intraday charging, the demand for quicker charging is highlighted by today’s buyers panning the Bolt for its lack of a DC fast charging network as Tesla offers. Right or wrong, people have their viewpoints. Some make it work, for others it’s a deal breaker.

Range Anxiety

Not an issue for plug-in hybrids with their gas backup, earlier generation EVs with 80-some miles or less meant accepting vehicles with an effective traveling range much less than an ICE car. This is a topic that can get dedicated EV advocates fired up, and some have been known to say no one needs so much range, but consumers already have it, so doing without is a perceptive step backwards, and potentially for more money.

A sub-issue is plug-in hybrids that reduce trunk space in exchange for only OK EV range. The 19-mile Fusion Energi is a handsome cfar, but the 201 Volt had 35 miles, and the 2016 gets 53. There's something to be said for a purpose built PEV.

A sub-issue is plug-in hybrids that reduce trunk space in exchange for only OK EV range. The 19-mile Fusion Energi is a handsome cfar, but the 201 Volt had 35 miles, and the 2016 gets 53. There’s something to be said for a purpose built PEV.

The excitement over the Tesla Model 3, Chevy Bolt, and other sub-$40,000 EVs with 200-plus mile range are indicators in part of pent-up demand for more of a range buffer.

Public Charging Infrastructure

Some areas have decent coverage of level 2 public chargers, but many do not. For people wanting intra-day charging, this makes access much less likely than gas pumps. Of course every home with its own parking space has access, but apartment dwellers may or may not have this privilege. As for fast chargers which can provide 80 percent charge in under 30 minutes, these are even more scarce. Again, there are counterpoints, and work-arounds, but this is speaking of perceptions among general consumers who don’t want to deal with it.

Public Perceptions/Understanding

The last several issues dovetail with the lack of general understanding of PEV technology. That PEVs can work great with someone’s lifestyle and traveling needs, while cost-effective and satisfying is unquestioned. A polite term is “more education is needed.”

Folks today may know very little about battery electric or plug-in hybrid vehicles, and not know why they may work for them.

In 2012 a survey of consumers in the market for a new car showed many wrong answers, and subsequent surveys and anecdotes indicate more work is needed.

Assumption of Poor Performance

Along with the uniformed public’s need to learn are faulty assumptions some need to unlearn. These can include PEVs are boring, slow, wimpy. Actually even ordinary PEVs like the Leaf are quick to 45 mph, and instant torque plus lively road manners can make PEVs fun to drive, but some people have assumed otherwise.

Dealer Sales Force Insufficiently Compensated

Tesla is exempt from this one, as it has its own motivated factory sales network, but otherwise anecdotes are legendary of major manufacturers’ third-party dealership sales force. Though some dealerships do an outstanding job, commissioned sales people are not typically compensated commensurately with what can be a more-involved sale. That aforementioned “education” would come from a salesperson if it was worth his or her time – but time is money, and it may be easier to sell a conventional car and move on to the next prospect.

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This in turn can mean salespeople are not incentivized to themselves learn about the features, advantages and benefits of PEVs to sell them with enthusiasm.

Manufacturers’ Marketing

The most famous example is General Motors lack of enthusiasm for the generation-one Chevy Volt with ads that did not strike home with consumers, or ads that were not there at all. In 2014, HybridCars.com may have been the first publication to report Chevrolet’s official policy of advertising only in California and tech fairs, and its seeing the Volt as a “niche” product “just like Corvette.”

Not to pick on Chevrolet, other manufacturers have struggled to find their voice – if they placed product at all. Another known issue is the “compliance car” phenomenon in which PEVs are sold only in states that follow California zero emission vehicle rules.

Politics / Social Perceptions

Plug-in cars do not vote in elections. They are intended to improve the air, and reduce dependence on foreign oil for everyone, but they have been politicized nonetheless. Because they are championed by the Obama administration, PEVs have received collateral damage, if not outright being the target of critics. In 2012 this hit a high note when it was a campaign issue for Mitt Romney.

Those who otherwise disbelieve in climate change, or question its severity, or have other objections on principle of policies favoring PEVs may also vote against PEVs.

Advocates have observed petroleum is subsidized far more heavily than PEVs, and the true cost of gasoline is most certainly more to our health and national pocketbook than what we see at the pump, but feelings are what feelings are.

Mixed Messages

Articles written by 1) the uninformed, or 2) those twisting the facts, have been numerous. As a result, the proverbial person on the street has not quite known what to think amidst contradicting viewpoints.

To be sure, there are pros and cons to any technology. It’s been said that “if you build a better mousetrap, the world will beat a path to your door,” and even advocates have said first-gen PEVs were not a complete no-brainer.

SEE ALSO: Are Consumers Being Manipulated By Anti-Electric Car Propaganda?

They actually require thought, and are a qualified choice after research, comprehension of myriad factors, and not hurting things is if one does feel strongly about improving the environment, energy security, and enjoying new technology.

MS_HP_charger

The federal government officially endorses a multi-tech approach that does include conventional vehicles in the majority, and the buzz word is “all of the above.”

To the dismay of PEV advocates however can be articles that misrepresent the truth of vehicles that can work for people motivated enough to look without bias, and do their own thinking.

Cheap Gas

It is safe to say in 2010 when the PEV market was a gleam in U.S. policymakers’ eyes, few if any were predicting gas would drop to well below $2 per gallon.

Exactly how much this has hurt PEV sales is in question, as there are a few reasons why people buy PEVs, and fuel (or energy) costs is only one of them. Cheap fuel has more-clearly hurt the regular hybrid market – dropping it from 3.2 percent to 1.85 percent the past couple years – because hybrids are always gas dependent, but PEVs can do without.

Plug-in hybrid and all-electric car buyers motivated to little or no gas as the case may be aren’t as affected by gas prices, but it has been a factor.

Upper Socioeconomic Bias

Plug-in cars which cost more to make, and which take a more-informed decision to buy have been seen by automakers as the province of higher level demographics – either intellectually, economically, or as can frequently be the case, both.

The Volt in 2011 famously sold to households with median income of $175,000 annually, and note the proportion of upscale PEVs for sale today.

Mercedes-Benz S 500 PLUG-IN HYBRID (W 222) 2013

Of 14 U.S. market plug-in hybrids, nine are upscale, namely the BMW X5, Audi A3, Porsche Cayenne and Panamera, Volvo XC90, Mercedes S550, BMW i8 and 3-Series, and now-cancelled Cadillac ELR. Cars priced from the 30s include the Volt, Ford Fusion and C-Max, leftover Toyota Prius PHV, and Hyundai Sonata.

Where are the plug-in hybrid crossover SUVs for mainstream buyers? There aren’t any, though a few are pending. Where are the pickup trucks? None. Chrysler is expected to be the first company with a plug-in hybrid minivan, but other carmakers are sitting it out for now.

As for the all-electric cars, aside from Tesla Model S and X, most are priced in the 30s or 40s, with a couple in the high 20s.

This phenomenon follows hybrids which may be relatively well-contented with amenities targeting them for upper income earners and helping the manufacturer also pad the cost for the more-complicated technology.

Progress Happening

With the announcement now of five pending 200-plus-mile range EVs priced from the mid 30s, advocates are hoping something like a tipping point could be imminent.

The first half decade of major manufacturer cars saw resistance on all fronts – mainstream consumer, media, political, manufacturer – even as early successes like Tesla’s Model S, and other better sellers along with government policies pushed forward the state of affairs.

Federal Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) requirements can technically be met in 2025 with only 1-3 percent PEVs, but synergies are at work to make the reality better than that despite the escape hatch the feds built into the rules for automakers.

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One is California, whose ZEV policies call for one-in-seven PEVs by 2025, and states that follow its rules make up as much as 25 percent of the U.S. market. Global policies, including tough rules in Europe and China are also forcing automakers.

At the same time battery costs have come down, and Tesla’s more than 370,000 Model 3 reservations has sent waves into the industry.

Aside from that, if there was any doubt about PEV viability, consider the world’s case example, Norway. That tiny nation of 5.1 million has subsidized PEVs, penalized internal combustion, and shows what is possible when a people are unified enough to make things happen.

Norway now buys one PEV out of every four vehicles sold, and shows also that first-generation PEVs can meet needs, even in a Nordic country where li-ion batteries are less happy than they are in temperate climates.

Of course the U.S. and other major markets do not have the same conditions to enable them to emulate Norway, so their progress is what it is. Wheels are turning slower, but they are turning.

In all, it is a nuanced market with many variables playing off of one another. This article of necessity did not give a lot of detail per point, and more could be added, but this is much of what PEVs have had to face.

It’s been said some wanted to kill PEVs in the cradle, and some still do hope they’ll die an early death. As it is, the opposite appears to be happening, and assuming no other unforeseen complications, it’s onward and upward from here.