Archive for the ‘General’ Category


Jan 20

Top 10 Plug-in Vehicle Adopting Countries of 2016


Last year plug-in vehicles sales jumped to an all-time high of more than three-quarters of a million units worldwide and individual countries likewise crested new peaks.

The year 2016’s increase was substantially over 2015’s somewhat-over half a million, and helped accelerate the cumulative global tally of plug-in hybrids and all-electric vehicles above 2 million by year’s end.

SEE ALSO: Top 6 Plug-in Car Adopting Countries – 2013

These are benchmarks of progress for a market that was almost nil at the beginning of the decade, but if things go to plan, they may be only sparks igniting far bigger results due in the next few years.

SEE ALSO: Top 6 Plug-in Car Adopting Countries – 2014

In 2016 several major automakers projected that their total sales could grow to as high as 15-25-percent plug-ins by 2025 – up from presently next to nothing to a bit over 1 percent. Further, large spending from various sources for plug-in charging infrastructure has been committed to in top markets.

Top countries with Europe as a whole included for reference. Chart by Mario R. Duran.

Top countries with Europe as a whole included for reference. Chart by Mario R. Duran.

Assuming these and other market-shifting developments happen to drive down costs, and create synergies, a virtual sea change is in the making for the kinds of cars people see on the roads over the next decade.

SEE ALSO: Top 6 Plug-in Car Adopting Countries – 2014

Meanwhile, here’s a quick list of the top 10 countries and respective sales. Over the previous three years we’ve posted just the top six, but are this year noting 10 as together they account for about 95 percent of the world’s cumulative plug-in electrified vehicle (PEV) sales.

10. Canada – 10,067

Canada’s market is about one-tenth the size of that of the U.S., and a partial count of most sales – with data so far available – is 10,067 PEVs.

Thanks to incentives and growing awareness, this is up 48.4 percent over 2015, and in total, 27,392 PEVs have been cumulatively purchased since the beginning.

Canada’s PEV market share is also up to 0.53 percent – an increase from 2015’s 0.37 percent.

The country’s global share is a modest 1.3 percent of the total of all PEVs in the world, and the best-selling vehicle last year was the Chevrolet Volt, with 3,469 delivered.

9. Sweden – 13,454


The nation of Sweden is small, but on a roll. Its 13,454 PEV sales last year – including cars and light vans – was up 49.8 percent over 2015.

Sweden’s 3.5-percent PEV market share is third only to off-the-charts Norway and second-place Netherlands.

Since its market began, Sweden has purchased 30,513 PEVs, and its share of the world’s cumulative total is 1.5 percent.

Last year’s sales amounted to 1.7-percnt of the world’s 2016 total, and the best selling model is the VW Passat GTE with 3,804 units sold.

8. Japan – est. 21,000


Japan bought about 21,000 PEVs last year, albeit with latest monthly data not in yet. Its cumulative total through late last year is 147,500 cars and light vans since the market began there, or about 7.3 percent of the global total.

Year-over-year growth however was almost flat, however, with PEV market share down to about 0.42 percent, but can you meanwhile guess the top-selling model?

Did you say the Nissan Leaf? That is correct. Although a complete count is not available, through November the nation bought 13,563 units in 2016. Cumulative volume since 2010 is 71,262.

7. The Netherlands – 24,645

As proof of how much the market is driven by incentives, the Netherlands was down 44 percent in 2016 with 24,645 cars and vans sold.

This was the aftermath of a rush on sales in late 2015 as consumers sought to lock in generous incentives ending in 2016. Market share in 2016 was down from 9.7 percent in 2015 but still the world’s second-highest, at 6.4 percent.

Strong sales at the end of 2015 had also been enough that the Netherlands was Europe’s top market in 2015. In 2016 however both Norway and France’s cumulative sales volumes overtook it.

Since the beginning of its market, 113,636 cars and light vans have been purchased. A peak of 10,344 plug-in hybrids sold in December 2016 were however enough to bring the Dutch PEV stock to second place after Norway. Its share of the global cumulative total is 5.6 percent.

6. Germany – 25,154


A total of 25,154 PEVs were registered in German during 2016, which amounted to 3.2 percent of global sales last year.

This is up 7.2 percent for Germany, which despite updated incentives, did not see sales take off as vigorously as planners had hoped. PEVs made up 0.75 percent of the country’s market share, which is the lowest among the top PEV-selling European nations.

Top seller: BMW i3 – 2,863 units – which just edged out the Renault Zoe’s 2,805.

To date, Germany has bought 74,754 PEVs, or about 3.7 percent of the global stock.

5. France – 33,704


Vive la 100,000 club – that is, last year France joined four other nations in the 100,000 PEV sales club and for the year, bought 33,704 cars and light vans for 4.4 percent of the global sales total.

Growth year over year was a decent 21.7 percent and PEVs have a comparatively healthy 1.4 percent market share.

The Renault Zoe was the best seller, with 11,404 units in 2016, and the cumulative total of all sales to date is 108,065 cars and light vans, or 5.3 percent of the world’s total.

4. United Kingdom – 36,907


The UK absorbed 36,907 plug-in passenger cars for a 30.9 percent increase over 2015, and market share in 2016 was 1.37 percent.

These sales comprise 4.8 percent of the world’s total for 2016, and the best seller was the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV, with an estimated 10,000 prior to full sales data being made available.

To date, the cumulative total is 91,627, or 5.3 percent of the world’s total, and the UK ought to join the 100,000 club by the second quarter of this year.

3. Norway – 45,492


The little electric train that could, Norway, keeps telling itself “I think I can, I think I can” go 100-percent zero emission, and 45,492 sales were a 32-percent increase over 2015, and constituted an unprecedented 29.1 percent market share.

This market share is up from 2015’s 22.4 percent PEV market share and means almost one in three cars sold are of the plug-in variety.

Norway, pop. 5.27 million, also registered more than 5,000 used imported PEVs, whith the Kia Soul EV being the best seller among these, at 2,494 and the Nissan Leaf accounted for 2,112 used units registered.

In April the nation joined the 100,000 club, and today an astonishing 4.8 percent – almost one in 20 – cars on the road have plug ports.

Best sellers among the new cars were the Mitsu Outlander PHEV, 5,136 units, and the first time a PHEV outsold a battery electric vehicle in Norway.

This also followed the trend of increased plug-in hybrids overall, as market share was 13.4 percent of new car registrations, versus 15.7 percent for battery electrics – down from 17.1 percent in 2015.

If this is not enough, Norway is Europe’s leader in cumulative PEVs, with 135,276 cars and vans, or about 6.6 percent of the global total.

2. United States – 157,181


U.S. sales of 157,181 were up a healthy 37.6 percent after they’d declined in 2015.

This is 20.3 percent of the world’s total sales, so America spoke for one-in-five PEVs last year though in the 17.5 million car market, share is just 0.9 percent – up from 0.66 percent in 2015.

The best seller was Tesla’s Model S, with 29,156 units including a crunch estimated at more than 5,000 just in December.

As for the U.S.’ cumulative total since 2008, this is 570,187 – of which about 270,000 came from the United State of California.

That’s a healthy number, but the U.S. places third behind China and Europe when the EU is counted as a whole. Its share of the global cumulative total in 2014 when the U.S. was still the all-around sales leader was 40 percent, but it has declined to 28.1 percent

As noted, things are just beginning, so time will tell how the U.S. competes going forward.

1. China – 320,081

China says by 2030 it will be the supreme dominator, and while anything is possible it got a good foothold in 2016 as it bought almost double the number of the next-closest rival with 320,081 sales for a market share of 1.31 percent.

Actually, that’s from domestic-only sales, or about 96 percent of the country’s total. An estimated 4 percent imports spliced in would bring a theoretical total to 333,418 units – and this would include models like Teslas, BMWs, etc.

Further, China’s “new energy vehicles” – as it calls plug-ins – including a large number of plug-in buses and commercial trucks and sales of all NEVs amounted to 507,000.

Excluding those, China still accounted last year for 43 percent of the world’s PEV sales, but at this stage, a large percentage are simple, small models that likely would never pass U.S. federal safety standards let alone mainstream consumers’ tastes.

That’s changing however, as evidenced by startups and domestic joint-venture partnerships between major Japanese, European, and U.S. companies lured to the growth and building nicer products that may also be exported.

For 2016, the top seller was a pure domestic however, and that would be BYD’s Tang – 31,405 units.

China also last year became the leader in cumulative total sales, with 632,371 domestically produced units, or an estimated 645,708 or 31.8 percent of the global total.

If one factors in the commercial buses and trucks, China actually has an estimated 951,447 plug-in vehicles in all, and should cross the one-million mark in the first quarter of this year.

Thanks to Mario R. Duran for help with data.


Jan 19

Automakers and Energy Companies Team Up To Sell The World On Hydrogen



Sometimes plug-in vehicle advocates are accused of holding to conspiracy theories that deep-pocketed interests and carmakers resisting EVs want to promote hydrogen, but who needs theories when intentions are expressed in plain sight?

To wit, yesterday at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, 13 CEOs and chairpersons from major corporations representing total revenues of $1.14 trillion and 1.72 million employees, met as members of the newly formed “Hydrogen Council.”

The first global initiative of its kind, they plan in the next five years to invest $10.7 billion in hydrogen-related products. And, as a lobbying arm, their goal is to seek government funding, public acceptance, and otherwise pave the way for a hydrogen future.

Members of the Hydrogen Council presently are: Air Liquide, Alstom, Anglo American, BMW GROUP, Daimler, ENGIE, Honda, Hyundai Motor, Kawasaki, Royal Dutch Shell, The Linde Group, Total and Toyota.

Corporate logos of member companies in the Hydrogen Council.

Corporate logos of member companies in the Hydrogen Council.

Two co-chairs – currently represented by Air Liquide and Toyota – lead the council from different geographies and sectors.

The Hydrogen Council’s expressed “united vision” and “long term ambition” is to promote the energy source among policymakers, businesses, international agencies, “hydrogen players,” – and you, a member of the public.

Their key selling proposition is summed in the environmental benefits the Hydrogen Council intends to prove.

“Hydrogen is a versatile energy carrier with favorable characteristics since it does not release any CO2 at the point of use as a clean fuel or energy source, and can play an important role in the transition to a clean, low-carbon, energy system,” said a statement.

What was not said is anything about upstream emissions at the point of refining or transport, as natural gas is used to reform methane into hydrogen.


This process of getting the hydrogen to the end user does release emissions but the hydrogen advocates say in time more renewable sources will make hydrogen a more viable environmental proposition.

To be fair, plug-in electrified vehicles also have upstream emissions – and PHEVs do have tailpipe emissions. However, advocates have pointed to well-to-wheel analyses, and gradle-to-grave analyses from various sources to show plug-ins are net cleaner. And, they say, they make better sense from a variety of standpoints, plus the grid is getting cleaner year by year.

Speaking of which, infrastructure is also more in place for plug-ins. Although more public charging is still being called for, given that the energy grid is fully wired – and expensive hydrogen stations are few and far between – arguments against devoting finite resources to fuel cell technology are only amplified.

A sight not likely to be seen for a fuel cell vehicle -- a car charging at home. Furthermore, owners of solar and other renewable energy can cut off their need for refueling, save the hassle of going to a fuel station, and this potential independence frightens energy companies, advocates say. Fuel cell advocates counter by saying FCVs make sense for those without a home base to charge, an issue likely to be compounded with increased urbanization.

A sight not likely to be seen for a fuel cell vehicle — a car charging at home. Furthermore, owners of solar and other renewable energy can cut off their need for refueling, save the hassle of going to a fuel station, and this potential independence frightens energy companies, advocates say. Fuel cell advocates counter by saying FCVs make sense for those without a home base to charge, an issue likely to be compounded with increased urbanization.

Otherwise, a race is yet on, even as carmakers are also developing battery electric and plug-in hybrid cars which to date have sold about 2 million worldwide, next to a mere handful of fuel cell vehicles.

To gain parity for hydrogen, the Hydrogen Council thus seeks to put its money where its mouth is as it otherwise seeks increased commitment for fuel cell technology.

“During the launch, members of the ‘Hydrogen Council’ confirmed their ambition to accelerate their significant investment in the development and commercialization of the hydrogen and fuel cell sectors,” said a statement. “These investments currently amount to an estimated total value of €1.4 billion/year ($1.7 billion/year). “This acceleration will be possible if the key stakeholders increase their backing of hydrogen as part of the future energy mix with appropriate policies and supporting schemes.”

The Hydrogen Council’s goals are in sympathy with the 2015 Paris Agreement calling for the “ambitious goal” of reaching the 2 degree Celsius target set needed to save the planet from consequences of continued climate warming blamed on greenhouse gases.

The initiative for hydrogen goes beyond transportation.

The initiative for hydrogen goes beyond transportation.

“The 2015 Paris Agreement to combat climate change is a significant step in the right direction but requires business action to be taken to make such a pledge a reality,” said Benoît Potier, CEO, Air Liquide. “The Hydrogen Council brings together some of the world’s leading industrial, automotive and energy companies with a clear ambition to explain why hydrogen emerges among the key solutions for the energy transition, in the mobility as well as in the power, industrial and residential sectors, and therefore requires the development of new strategies at a scale to support this. But we cannot do it alone. We need governments to back hydrogen with actions of their own―for example through large-scale infrastructure investment schemes. Our call today to world leaders is to commit to hydrogen so that together we can meet our shared climate ambitions and give further traction to the emerging Hydrogen ecosystem.”

The Hydrogen Council said its invites “governments and key society stakeholders to also acknowledge the contribution of hydrogen to the energy transition and to work with us to create an effective implementation plan.”

And, it has a report, “How hydrogen empowers the energy transition” to further educate all involved on its position.


Jan 18

Cadillac Will Offer ‘Completely Hands-Free’ Driving Later This Year


By Craig Cole


Cadillac is developing an advanced semi-autonomous driving system dubbed Super Cruise, which is very different from any other system currently offered.

When conditions allow, this advanced driver-assistance technology should be able to steer, brake and regulate vehicle speed automatically, making it ideal for long highway drives or slogging through rush-hour traffic. Unlike systems offered by rival automakers, “It’ll be completely hands-free,” said Brandon Vivian, executive chief engineer at Cadillac. Systems from other automakers only allow hands to be off the steering wheel for a few seconds.

“The difference between our system and others is that we’ll have technology to monitor the driver and make sure that they’re being attentive,” explained Vivian. Reading the paper, playing a game of canasta with passengers or napping when Cadillac’s latest autonomous technology is engaged will be strongly discouraged.


Keeping tabs on the driver is an array of electronic monitors. Facial recognition and eye tracking will also be included. Additionally, Vivian said, “We have lights on the steering wheel that will flash and illuminate and get your attention.” He explained that Super Cruise will require periodic check-ins so the car knows you’re still conscious and ready to take control if necessary.

And that’s important because emergencies happen whether an advanced cruise control system is engaged or not. “[In] the unfortunate situation that the driver isn’t responsive for one reason or another,” said Vivian, “The vehicle does have the ability to come to a stop safely.”

Adding another layer of security to Super Cruise, it’s intended exclusively for highway use. In fact, it should not operate at all unless the vehicle is traveling on an appropriate stretch of road. “It’s geo-fenced to interstates only and we have those mapped,” said Vivian. The car will give its driver a clear indication when it’s able to take over in an autonomous fashion.

CT6; available in plug-in hybrid form as well.

CT6; available in plug-in hybrid form as well.

Optical cameras, as well as radar, lidar and ultrasonic sensors help enable adaptive cruise control and other cutting-edge features found in many of today’s vehicles. Cadillacs equipped with Super Cruise should feature a similar battery of electronics plus advanced GPS map data, but it’s how everything communicates that will set this system apart.

“The integration of all of these sensors together is what we’re going to have that’ll be different,” said Vivian. He noted that rival systems often fail to function when the weather’s less than perfect, suggesting Cadillac’s offering may operate in a broader range of conditions.

“So, what we’re trying to do is have a very sophisticated approach where the system is up and operational the most time it can be so that you do get this enhancement of the driving experience,” noted Vivian. This is what will enable hands-free operation and allow you to take your eyes off the road for short periods of time.

Cadillac’s much-anticipated Super Cruise system, which is scheduled to launch in the second half of 2017 in the CT6 sedan, sounds like a promising entry in the field of semi-autonomous technology. Engineers are undoubtedly working overtime to ensure it’s both effective and safe.

This article originally appeared at


Jan 17

State by state rollout plan announced for Chevy Bolt


By Jon LeSage


Chevrolet has released a state-by-state distribution schedule for the Chevy Bolt in 2017, with the all-electric compact crossover going nationwide during the third quarter.

Following the Bolt’s launch in California and Oregon, the next states to see the rollout was scheduled to begin in December-through-February in Massachusetts, Maryland, and Virginia.

Nineteen states will be included in the first wave of deliveries sometime between June and August. Chevrolet did caution that its schedule is approximate and should be used as a guide.

The initial market is focusing on the west coast and northeast states. A few large car sales markets in other parts of the country – Colorado, Florida, Arizona, and Texas – are included on the list prior to the nationwide rollout.

Here’s the state-by-state distribution schedule released by Chevrolet:


Chevrolet has been devoted to breaking the automotive industry pattern of keeping an all-new electric car secluded to California and a few other select states. General Motors hasn’t planned on manufacturing and rolling it out on a grand scale like the Tesla Model 3; media reports suggested that between 23,000 and 50,000 Bolts may be sold per year.

HybridCar’s Dashboard reported that the Bolt’s first month saw 579 units sold in Oregon and California (only) during its launch in December, finishing in fifth place for battery electric vehicle segment. While that only made up about 10 percent of the sales of the nationally available No. 1 Tesla Model S in December, it was a more impressive initial sales month than most other plug-in electrified vehicles have witnessed.

SEE ALSO:  Want a Chevy Bolt Outside of California and Oregon? Thanks For Your Patience

Enthusiasts had waited for GM to clarify the launch timing and distribution in California and Oregon. Darin Gesse, marketing product manager for Chevrolet, said that the majority of orders in the two launch states were for the upper Premier trim, and 90-percent had selected the $750 fast charging option.

Roll-out-plan, schmoll-out-plan. What's this? A Bolt in Maryland in early January? If you really want one sooner, you can have one trucked from California like someone we know.

Roll-out-plan, schmoll-out-plan. What’s this? A Bolt in Maryland in early January? If you really want one sooner, you can have one trucked from California like someone we know.

California’s Silicon Valley was where the first Chevy Bolts were sold last month. That’s where competitor Tesla Motors has its headquarters. Tesla will be launching the Bolt’s main competitor, the Model 3, as early as the end of this year.

Chevrolet reported that 1,200 of its approximately 3,000 dealerships nationwide are certified for Bolt sales and service. There will be at least one Chevy dealer selling and serving Bolts in each of the 50 states.

Chevrolet and General Motors continue to promote the Bolt through media and marketing channels, showing off its 238-mile range and starting price that comes in under $30,000 after the federal tax credit is applied.

Green Car Reports


Jan 16

Achates Opposed-Piston Engine Promises 37 mpg For Full-Size Pickups


By Larry E. Hall


San Diego-based Achates Power has introduced a 2.7-liter opposed-piston engine that will be able to deliver 37 miles per gallon in a full-sized pickup truck.

Revealed during industry days at this week’s Detroit auto show, the OP-3 turbocharged, two-stroke diesel engine kicks out 270 horsepower and 479 pounds-feet of torque. At the same time, it is said to comply with EPA emission regulations and exceed 2025 CAFE standards of 33 mpg required for trucks with a footprint of 65-70 square-feet.

“The 65-70 square-foot footprint 33 mpg CAFE requirement is for a light-duty truck, like an F-150, Ram 1500, Silverado, etc.,” said Achate media representative Andrew Schreck. “The engine would work in SUVs and larger CUVs.”

Configured to mount in a mostly vertical position that fits the same space as a conventional in-line four or V6 engine, the lower crankshaft is in the same position as current cranks for easy vehicle integration.

The Achates costs $1,000 less than a conventional gasoline or diesel engine because it has fewer parts than a conventional gasoline or diesel engine, such as a cylinder head and valve train.

SEE ALSO: Ford To Build Hybrid F-Series Pickup By 2020

“There is no technical solution to respond to the proposed 2025 CAFE regulation that is as cost effective, compatible with our existing vehicles and fuels, ready for production and adaptable to future renewable fuels as our opposed-piston engines,” said David Johnson, president and CEO, Achates Power.

The Ford F-150 with 2.7-liter is rated 22 mpg combined. Without hybridization, the Achates engine promises much-bettter, with superior emissions performance that's also sorely needed needed.

The Ford F-150 with 2.7-liter is rated 22 mpg combined. Without hybridization, the Achates engine promises much-bettter, with superior emissions performance that’s also sorely needed.

Achates Power has spent 13 years improving the opposed-piston engine, an engine design that dates back to 1882 when James Atkinson originated his cycle on an opposed-piston engine.

Yes, that’s the Atkinson cycle that’s used on many of today’s high-efficient engines.

Johnson said the company will produce a drivable prototype truck by 2018.

The company currently has engine development programs with nine automakers, Motor Trend reported, with at least one of them that has begun to tool up to build an opposed-piston engine in volume.

Shreck said of confidentiality requirements of contracts, he could not get into details on the automakers, but did give some insights.

“We have 12 development programs underway right now, three we can discuss publicly (Fairbanks Morse for large stationary power units, the US Army for combat engines and ARPA-E) and the remaining nine are with engine manufacturers,” he said. “Since we are under non disclosure agreements with those customers I can’t draw any further differentiation on what industry they are in.”

“We do have customers that are working on production plans for our Opposed-Piston Engine, but that would be an announcement that we would leave to our customers to make.”

Motor Trend,


Jan 13

Mary Barra: Bolt EV Will Be Basis For a ‘Huge Range of Vehicles’



A recent comment by General Motors CEO Mary Barra this week has sent EV fans to speculating, as she said a “huge range of vehicles” will be spun off from the Bolt EV platform.

How one defines a huge range of vehicles, how soon these will be, and what really to expect at all were not disclosed, but the question came after being asked about Ford’s announcement of 13 electrified vehicles it has in the works.

“I think what’s important is the Bolt EV follows the second generaton of the Volt; so we had the first Chevrolet Volt, we’ve already launched the second generation,” said Barra from the sidelines of the Detroit auto show. “There’s a lot of learning there, and all those learnings went into the Bolt.”

… Which, she says will be the basis of many more cars – presumably all-electric, but not defnitively stated as such – to come.

“The Bolt is our platform that we’re going to continue on and have a huge range of vehicles,” said Barra, “so we haven’t announced them yet, but you’re going to see more coming.”


Barra went on to avoid specifics mentioning things GM expects including costs being driven down, improved battery energy density, people liking the new electrified cars, and synergies will happen.

“So, I think that the fact that were doing it right now is pretty significant,” she said.

Implied also by Barra’s response was the Volt is better in key ways than what Ford has yet demonstrated.

Ford’s plug-in hybrid C-Max Energi and Fusion Energi have up to 20-21 miles EV range, whereas the purpose-built Volt has 53, and these cars combined in 2016 had 23,895 sales compared to the Volt’s 24,739.

But Ford, reinventing itself into a “mobility” company as is GM, has promised a 300-plus-mile all-electric SUV, a hybrid F-150, hybrid Mustang, turbocharged hybrids, and Barra predictably sidestepped answering a “future product” question about the potential for a Camaro hybrid.

GM has previously expressed interest in a hybrid Corvette, potentially a plug-in hybrid Corvette, and otherwise it and so many other manufacturers know they’ll need more electrified vehicles to meet global regulations in years ahead.


“Electrified” is defined as hybrid, plug-in hybrid, or battery electric, and contrary to what the reporter suggested to Barra of Ford’s future product announcement, Ford is bringing 13 “electrified” vehicles, not “13 EVs” (as in battery electric vehicles) by 2020.

As it has for some time now, GM is thus playing its hand closer to its chest, but Barra’s statements imply the company will not be left out – and it will meet competition, demand and all other market realities as it has to.

Barra went on to say GM expects gas prices to stay low in America for quite some time, and this has driven record sales of conventional trucks, SUVs, and crossovers that Americans like to buy when they don’t feel immediate pressure of gas prices.

Yes, one might say there is a reactive mentality among consumers, and carmakers in turn are reacting to regulations, with a goal of making revenues and staying ahead of penalties.

This said, manufacturers including VW Group, Daimler and BMW have all projected 15-25 percent of their products being electrified by 2025, Honda said two-thirds by 2030, and so all carmakers now with toes in the water are being pulled in deeper.

Keeping to the metaphor, or mixtures thereof, if any are yet afraid they’ll be shocked by “electrified” waters, EV fans are splashing around already saying come in, the water is fine. Carmakers are saying trust us, we’ll get there soon.

Proof of consumer demand includes phenomena like over 400,000 pre-orders for Tesla’s “$35,000” and 215-plus mile Model 3, and exuberance anytime mention is made of an affordable or close to mainstream priced larger plug-in, like the Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid.

A father to be.

A father to be.

So, coming back to the Bolt, Barra said its dedicated platform is expandable, and will be expanded to a “huge” number of vehicles. Whether that means a sedan, a larger crossover, a small SUV, or what else is not disclosed.

Something is in the works, what do you think they have up their sleeve?, InsideEVs.