Archive for the ‘General’ Category

 

May 26

2017 Chevrolet Bolt EV Review – Video

 

Chevrolet’s 238-mile range Bolt EV is a major leap forward among mass-appeal electric cars and for now arguably the best.

Why? Several reasons that add up to a nicely designed vehicle that does what it’s supposed to, while being enjoyable to motor around in, and boasting amazing efficiency as well.

As the first EV with over 200 miles range priced in the 30s – a few dollars under $30,000 with a $7,500 federal tax credit – it is General Motors’ badge of corporate technological pride. Until now, you’d have to have spent twice as much if you wanted the range the eco car from Chevrolet now provides.

Of course the Bolt won’t be utterly unique for long, as Tesla’s sleek 215-or-more range Model 3 is due in July and to be priced from $35,000, Tesla has said, plus likely destination fee. Also, Nissan’s next Leaf is to be unveiled in September, it’s to be a more-similar competitor to the Bolt, and others in this range-for-dollar metric are on the next 2-3 year horizon.

But today you can order a Bolt EV which began sales in Oregon and California last October, is rolling out across the country as we speak, and to be nationally available by summer. It won’t have to be an option-packed version stickering a few thousand higher than base, as the Model 3 is expected to initially be with its long line of reservation holders, and the Bowtie-brand car is a solid contender in its own right.

In talking up the collaboration between General Motors and South Korea’s LG Chem and LG Electronics which contributed 11 major components to the Michigan-built EV, engineers have displayed confidence that the car is well executed.

A strict budget did necessitate strategic cost-cutting, and the long-term reliability record is something we’ll have to wait and see on, but if the durability of the 2011-2017 Chevy Volt is any indicator, odds are favorable that the Bolt will be as good as its initial impressions.

Quick Long Range Runner

It all starts with the drivetrain, as that’s basically what the purpose-built EV is centered around. Almost all details impress, beginning with the 60-kWh heated and liquid-cooled battery.

This 960-pound (435 kg) pack is integrated as a strength-increasing structural member in the floor, as GM utilized a “skateboard” chassis style that other EVs do also – and which GM developed for fuel cell prototypes in the early 2000s, but never used until now.

The Bolt EV weighs a rather portly 3,580 pounds, has an OK .308 cd, and a very high 119 “MPGe” energy efficiency measure. The net result is it runs 20 miles farther on the EPA combined cycle than a more aerodynamic but heavier and larger Tesla Model S 60.

GM had already broached upon the formula of quick front-wheel-drive electric cars by way of the limited market and now discontinued Spark EV, and that formula was carried forward to the Bolt with 200 horsepower (150 kW) and 266 pounds-feet of torque. Characteristic of electric motors, the torque is “instant” and available from 0 rpm.

Not your granddad’s old Chevy.

This much power enables 0-30 mph in 2.9 seconds, 0-60 in 6.5 seconds, top speed of 92 mph (was also listed by GM at 91 as mentioned in the video) and that translates to not boring, especially next to a 10-second Nissan Leaf – or Toyota Prius hybrid or Prius Prime plug-in hybrid.

The Bolt’s 238-miles combined range – 255 city, 217 highway – means one may not have to charge it daily. Naturally, charging a less than completely drained battery takes less than official times for a depleted one, and realistically owners can be back on the road in a few hours from home level 2 (240 volt) charging.

Even in areas where charging is not plentiful, the Bolt has so much range that home charging is enough for regional traveling without undue stress that you’ll run out of charge.

That said, level 1 (120-volt) adds a paltry four miles range per hour, requiring 60 hours for a full refill. Level 2 via the 7.2-kW onboard charger adds about 25 miles range per hour, or a complete charge in just over nine hours.

Bolt EV battery system. Even in areas where charging is not plentiful, the Bolt has so much range that home charging is enough for regional running without undue stress that you’ll run out of charge.

A $750 optional port enables public level 3 DC fast charging which adds 90 miles range in 30 minutes to the pack at a peak charge rate of around 50 kilowatts.

Critics have asked why GM would not offer quicker charging like Tesla does which can more than double this rate. Engineers dance around this question, but it may have to do with balancing all desired attributes in the LG chemistry and maximizing life.

Avoids the Nerd Look

Designed in South Korea, the Bolt EV makes good use of the flat platform afforded by the battery in floor chassis.

Swooping compound shapes in the flanks, 17-inch wheels, a somewhat hawk-like front visage and shapely high-visibility tail-lights round out the package.

The profile with rear-sloping roofline is becoming popular, and GM calls the over-sized hatchback a “compact crossover” while it’s classified by the EPA as a small wagon.

Very short overhangs maximize occupant and cargo space on a 102.4-inch wheelbase, and are reminiscent of a BMW i3, but the Bolt appears less quirky and more “mainstream.”

The Chevy however weighs 700-800 pounds more than the carbon-fiber reinforced plastic all-electric BMW, which may be a more sophisticated car in several respects, but not in the range for dollar department, as it’s only rated 114 miles with a 94 Ah battery.

Meanwhile, the inside of the Bolt does its best to maximize available space, and GM pulled a move akin to Dr. Who’s TARDIS for a vehicle that’s subcompact on the outside and midsized on the inside.

Its 95 cubic feet passenger volume plus 16.9 cubic feet cargo volume is within the EPA’s 110-119 cubic feet “midsized” scope. If it were classified as a sedan as the Leaf is, it would be midsized.

This is enabled by details like carved out seatbacks, but mainly thanks to the flat floor which let the designers optimize the five-seater to be roomier than the Chevrolet Volt. In fact, its 95 cubic feet total volume is a nominally above Tesla’s large-class 94-cubic feet volume Model S and Model X, though some of this is due to the Bolt’s high ceiling. Also, due to arcane rules from the 1970s, the EPA does not count the Tesla’s front trunk called a “frunk” toward available cargo volume.

Style-wise, the Bolt is airy, and non-confining, with plenty of leg and head room up front, good space in the back although the high-up rear bench seat has only adequate headroom for folks over 6 feet, 0 inches.

While cost-savings on plastic materials is evident, the look is contemporary, and made to feel more upscale and techno-feeling with an 8-inch main instrument cluster accompanied by a 10.2-inch infotainment screen. Advanced cruise control is not however available, and would be welcome on future model years.

Included is Apple CarPlay, Android Auto, plus OnStar 4G LTE with a Wi-Fi hotspot. Navigation is by OnStar turn by turn or your connected smartphone, and plenty of other data is shown, including charging and energy usage. At night a blue LED strip adorning the dash along with strategically lit buttons add to an inviting futuristic feel.

The 16.9 cubic-feet cargo volume with rear 60/40 bench seat back up is respectable, and Chevrolet notes it edges out the Honda Fit (16.6 cubic feet) and the BMW i3 (15.1 cubic feet).

A stow-able false floor in back comes out and can be conveniently lowered or tucked in another position providing space to stash things, though there is no spare to replace a self-sealing 215/50-17 Michelin Energy Saver tire. In our Premier trim model, a Bose subwoofer and amplifier occupied the cavity where a space-saver spare might have gone.

The floor is not perfectly flat with seat folded down, but there’s enough cargo room to potentially lie a bicycle or other largish objects thanks to the tall ceiling.

The Premier comes with rails for an accessory bike rack. At least two brands of rear hitches are now available for adding a rear rack as well.


Safety wise, the Bolt has 10 air bags and the chassis itself is strong, being comprised of seven types of steel strategically placed plus aluminum for the door, front quarter panel, and hood skins.

The upscale Premier we drove has a rear camera mirror and a 360-degree Surround Vision system gives a bird’s eye view by stitching multiple camera images together. This system is handy for perfectly fitting within the lines at a parking lot, but the front and rear cameras have noticeably lower resolution than the side cameras that are located in the bottom of the side view mirrors. This leads to an oddly blocky overall look on the surround view image where these lower and higher resolution cameras are stitched together.

The Bolt has a camera in back that lets the mirror double as a rear-view monitor that can stay on while driving. It takes an adjustment in focal length, and some people with glasses may find it difficult to adjust vision to it.


Other features optional on the LT, and standard on the Premier are Side Blind Zone Alert, Rear Park Assist and Cross-Traffic Alert. Also in place as part of a $1,000 option on the Premier car driven was GM’s Forward Collision Alert, Lane-Keep Assist with Lane Departure Warning and a Low-Speed Forward Automatic Braking plus Front Pedestrian Braking.

Driving On Electric Avenue

Engaging the one-speed transmission via Chevrolet’s first shift and park-by-wire shifter is a simple action that lets the car set out in quiet motion accompanied by a requisite space-shippy sound at low speeds to alert pedestrians. This is typically only heard outside, or with windows down.

Acceleration is good enough that you may find yourself demonstrating to family and friends the zip-power of a car that’s quicker than what’s normally associated with sensible eco models.

The Bolt EV is actually just 0.3 seconds slower to 60 mph than a 2016 Ford Focus ST, an ostensible “hot hatch,” and some EV fans have wanted to call the Bolt a “hot hatch” as well.

You’re free to call it what you want, but a full-on hot hatch has a performance-tuned suspension, sticky tires for maximum lateral acceleration, big brakes, and can usually turn respectable lap times at a closed circuit course.

With its regenerative braking sparing greater abuse on the binders, Chevrolet equipped modest 11-inch vented front and 10-inch solid rear rotors that may not need pad changes but infrequently, and otherwise Chevrolet is not calling it a hot hatch.

In any case, the Bolt otherwise is entertaining with instant torque that kicks if the accelerator is mashed. It’s lots of fun, really, and tire chirp has been permitted by the engineers who set the parameters for the StabilTrak traction control. Rounding corners, the low center of gravity car corners flat enough, and with poise enough to invite pushing the limits. Depressing the accelerator harder would allow an aggressive driver to make the front tires sing further toward its understeer bias and ultimate traction loss.

Stickier tires would of course help the sporting experience, and the Bolt saves cost with a torsion beam rear axle mated to the MacPherson strut front suspension, but it handles respectably. Of it, Chevrolet is bold enough to say it gives “a delightful driving experience that’s more akin to a compact sports sedan than a small utilitarian crossover.”


Yeah, that’s relatively accurate, we’d say.

But this is about energy efficiency, you say? Right you are. The motor is up to 97-percent efficient at optimum operating speeds, and the Bolt makes a Prius look like an energy hog by comparison

Also, the effect of feeding juice back to the battery via regenerative braking is just neat.

The Bolt’s algorithms adjust estimated range based on how one drives. After a full charge, it indicated 256 miles range, with a high range estimate of 302, and low of 209.


Drive mode (“D”) allows normal “creep” from a stop, and coasting on the go. The Low “L” mode is aggressive, and allows what Chevrolet terms “one-pedal driving.” It’s not adjustable, but slows the car by reversing the motor torque and sending up to 70 kW of juice back to the battery. One can alternately back pull the shifter from D to L as needed, or use the paddle, or both.

Low will bring the car to a complete stop and hold it. Contrary to another report that said the Bolt uses its friction brakes to come to a complete stop, media representative Fred Liguori said it instead uses motor torque to finish the job and hold the car in place. When on a hill, it will engage the electric parking brake after an extended period of time or when slowly crawling on a downhill road.


Although there’s no such thing as a perpetual motion machine, the Bolt’s nifty and flexible regen capacity does remind you of “free” or “found” or actually recovered energy. Actually, the most efficient driving involves minimizing both friction braking and employing regen braking since regenerating and later reusing power is typically only around 60 percent efficient. As it is, the car can regain miles of range on the fly, and one pedal driving positively changes the whole experience.

On a 9.3-mile trip, the Bolt indicated 3 miles of used range thanks to strategic use of the L drive mode, and extra regenerated energy from the left-side regen paddle as first seen on the Cadillac ELR, and 2016 Chevy Volt.

On other trips, it was novel seeing miles indicated range increase instead of only decrease as with an internal combustion vehicle.

The EV For You?

A typical green car analysis might clinically ask whether the Bolt EV “makes sense” by trying its best imitation of dispassionate, logical Mr. Spock to rationalize the bottom line, justify the car’s existence, and ultimately lead toward a thumbs up or down.

Questions including fuel costs, greenhouse gas emissions (none at tailpipe, variable “upstream” depending on where you plug in), and other ownership costs come into play.


Assuming a $7,500 federal credit plus potential state incentives – or attractive lease as many prefer this route for emerging-tech cars – the Bolt can make bottom-line sense, but is that fully fair, or true to how people really choose cars?

At the entry level, consumers often buy on price. As sticker numbers escalate, factors like looks, drive performance, and ultimately a sum package adding to how a car makes one feel come into play. If that were not true, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Audi, BMW and others would be in big trouble.

The Bolt is not an upscale luxury car, or a high-performance track star, but it blends in enough of those elements on top of the most range for dollar EV anyone can buy anywhere at this present writing.


Factually speaking if there ever were a market case for a car like the Nissan Leaf, Kia Soul EV, Ford Focus Electric, etc., the Bolt builds on that formula in a huge way.

Its good utility, smart from-the-ground-up design, and fun factor are icing on the cake making it more than just an ultimate ecologically sound means of transportation, while still arguably being that.

With its 238-miles range, the Bolt EV takes the idea of going electric far closer toward mainstream viability than any electric car to date.

 

May 25

Electric Vehicle Costs May Be On Par With Standard Vehicles By 2018

 

By Sam McEachern

The costs of purchasing and running an electric vehicle may shrink to become even with the cost of running a standard internal combustion vehicle by as early as next year.

According to research conducted by Swiss investment bank UBS, an increase in consumer demand for electric vehicles could have a significant effect on the costs associated with them. The firm recently raised its estimates for EV market share by 50 percent to 14 percent by 2025 – equivalent to 14.2 million vehicles worldwide. It also raised its 2021 projection from 2.5 million cars annually to 3.1 million.

UBS also found that an EV powertrain is actually $4,600 cheaper to produce than it had initially calculated and that there is strong potential to further reduce costs as they become more popular. Once cost of ownership parity is achieved, which factors in both the purchasing price of a vehicle and running costs, this will attract more customers to hybrids and EVs and create “an inflection point for demand,” the UBS report said. If EVs and hybrids make up a large portion of the market share, cost reduction will become much easier.

SEE ALSO: ‘Mobility’ Could Be $5 Trillion Industry in 10 Years but the Costs Projected To Be High

But while the cost of an electric car and an ICE car in Europe will be even by 2018, manufacturers will still be hard pressed to make money on them. What UBS refers to as a “true cost parity”, meaning manufacturers make at least a 5-percent profit margin on the vehicle, won’t be achieved by major automakers until 2023 at the earliest. According to a UBS estimate, Chevrolet currently loses an estimated $7,400 on every Bolt EV it sells and UBS projects it to make a 5-percent margin on the vehicle by 2025. The Tesla Model 3 is projected to lose $2,800 in its $35,000 base form, but will become profitable once equipped to cost $41,000 and over.

Once automakers do achieve true cost parity, EVs could mean big business. Their simpler design in relation to ICE vehicles has the potential to make them more profitable and easier to mass produce – though a major market shift such as that is still a long way out.

Forbes, HybridCars.com

 

May 24

Chevy Bolt EV Can Charge at 55 kW

 

By Jeff Nisewanger

The 2017 Chevrolet Bolt EV is capable of charging up to 20-percent faster than it does on today’s DC chargers, according to initial results in a newly published report from a Canadian research institute.

The Bolt’s peak charging rate has been the subject of some speculation. General Motors spokespeople have generally said the Chevrolet Bolt EV and its European equivalent, the Opel Ampera-e, are limited to charging at “50 kW.”

Meanwhile, the owners manual says “when using a DC charging station with at least 80 kW of available power, it will take approximately 30 minutes to recharge from a depleted battery to an estimated 145 km (90 mi) of driving range.”

Today’s DC fast chargers capable of supporting a charging current of 100 amps or 125 amps are typically referred to as being “50 kW” because they support up to a maximum charging voltage of 400 to 500 volts. Actual car battery packs are usually designed to use somewhat lower voltages closer to 350 to 400 volts and so actual charging power is normally somewhat less than 50 kilowatts.

There are no publicly accessible DC fast chargers capable of over 125 amps today in North America although products from manufacturers like ChargePoint and others are expected to become available for installation later this year.

The new report, by the Innovative Vehicle Institute near Montreal, says the Bolt EV can likely charge at up to 55 kilowatts at a current of up to 150A when plugged into future higher-powered chargers.

When pressed during an interview earlier this year the Bolt’s Product Manager at Chevrolet, Darin Gesse, stated the car would support a peak current of “about 150A” and a peak charging power of “a little over 50 kW”. Those statements closely match the results found in the new report.

According to the new study as well as anecdotal reports from Bolt owners, the car’s charging current can begin higher but abruptly tapers down to near 100 amps when the battery charge reaches about 53 percent full, drops again to around 60 amps at near 68 percent full, and again to near 40 amps at around 85 percent full.

The researchers worked with the Canadian DC charger manufacturer Elmec to modify an existing 125 amp model for testing purposes. When plugged into a Bolt EV, the modified charger falsely claimed to support 250 amp charging in order to see what current the car would request to charge at.

For their initial round of testing on the modified charger, they started a charging session when the Bolt’s battery was 40 percent full and the Bolt then requested 150 amps.

A lithium-ion battery pack’s voltage naturally rises as it gains charge. When charging at 150 amps, the Bolt’s pack would likely begin charging at a rate of about 50 kilowatts when near empty and then gradually rise until reaching about 55 kilowatts before starting to taper down when the pack reaches just over half full as it does today. At today’s chargers the power typically starts near 42 kilowatts and rises to 46 kilowatts when charging initially at 125 amps.

These peak battery charging rates only apply when the Bolt’s battery cells are 68F or warmer. The battery management system slows the charge rate to protect the lithium-ion battery cells as temperatures get colder.

Since the test only performed a simulated 150 amp charge and the charge began at only at 40 state of charge it is possible that actual peak charge rates could turn out to be higher or lower.

HybridCars.com

 

May 23

Consultant Says EV Recharge Times Could Drive Plug-in Hybrid Sales

 

By Tim Healey

Will overwhelmed infrastructure lead to doubled or tripled recharge times for EVs?

And will that drive sales of plug-in hybrids, given their increased powertrain flexibility, including the ability to switch to internal-combustion engine power?

One consultant says yes, that’s what will happen.

SEE ALSO: VW Reveals Nationwide EV Charging Plans

Nicholas Meilhan, a Paris-based consultant for Frost and Sullivan, posits that consumers will prefer plug-in hybrids over EVs, because in his view, the charging infrastructure won’t be able to keep up with EV sales.

In addition, drivers want to be able to take long trips, so they might turn to plug-in hybrids in order to have the ability to make a weekend drive to visit family or friends. Meanwhile, these same drivers might see an EV as more of a city car.

SEE ALSO: ChargePoint Unveils 400-kW DC Fast Charger

“Most drivers leaving for a long-distance weekend or holiday trip run the risk of their trips taking double or triple the time for a diesel or gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle. A battery electric car with ‘fast’ electric charge (50 kW) is approximately 25-times slower to fill than a vehicle with conventional fuel. Gasoline or diesel drivers will take five minutes to take on board what it will take two hours for a battery electric car as they will get six-times less energy in 20 minutes – the equivalent of 100 kilometers compared with 600 kilometers (62 miles versus 372 miles),” Meilhan said.

Meilhan also said there won’t be enough of the faster, more-expensive chargers, and will lead to charging delays. Frustrated drivers will instead turn their preferences to plug-in hybrids.

A ChargePoint executive clapped back, suggesting that longer charge times (a best-case of 40 minutes to recharge versus five minutes to fill with gas or diesel, according to Meilhan) won’t be a problem for consumers.

“ChargePoint, now having data from nearly 25 million charging sessions, envisions that charging needs will divide into two categories – around 80 percent of charging will take place in home and work, while another 20 percent will be at public sites like parking lots, street-side or fast charging stations,” Simon Lonsdale, vice president of business development for ChargePoint, told Forbes. ChargePoint just sold 200 rapid-charge systems to a British company called InstaVolt.

“Fast charging is for the rare occasions when drivers travel longer distances. Charging for the overwhelming majority of the time will be where drivers are, at home, work, or around time as they are doing something else,” he added.

Meilhan also pointed out that driving at highway speeds reduces EV range by up to 60 percent.

Forbes, HybridCars.com

 

May 22

Nissan Leaf Generation Two To Be Revealed In September

 


The long-anticipated redesign for the Nissan Leaf is to be revealed Sept. 6 in Tokyo.

According to Pierril Pouret, senior vice president of Nissan in the Nordic Region speaking in Oslo, Norway Monday, Nissan’s mass-market EV will be an all-new design with some cues taken as expected from the IDS concept (pictured).

“This will be a brand new model designed from blank sheets that will make sure we’re still in the front,” said Pouret at an event to commemorate the 30,000th Leaf in Norway.

Concealed test mules have already been seen testing on roads in Europe, and in question is how the Leaf will stack up to the 238-mile range Chevy Bolt EV, and pending 215-plus-mile Tesla Model 3, both to be priced in the mid 30s before incentives.

The original Leaf was designed after focus groups said they wanted a stand-out green car look. The new one will be toned down with some identifying cues carried forward.

The Tesla and Chevy are quite different except for price point and miles of range, and among the two, the Leaf will be more closely likened to a Bolt alternative.

It’s expected the Leaf could get a 60-kWh battery, but not before next year, and indicators are it may be a smaller-spec grade with only 40-kWh initially.

SEE ALSO: 7 Mainstream Green Cars Worth Waiting For

The Bolt has a 60 kWh battery, enabling its long range, but a 40-kWh, if true, would mean the first Leafs have under 200 miles EPA-rated range.

Pricing is of course not announced, but it would be likely to be in line with the present Leaf which starts around $31,000 and has 107 miles range – and otherwise competitive with the other vehicles it must sell against.

Pouret said the new Leaf will also boast some degree of autonomous drive capability without saying if this was optional, or standard.

The new Leaf is expected to go on sale by end of year according to the Norwegian report, and be available for deliveries by 2018.

Nissan, which has invested 3 billion Euros in Europe in batteries, says battery packs will be prepared at a cost value to it.

“In the automotive industry today there is nothing invested in as much as in electric cars and electric car technology,” said Pouret. “Many of these investments we already made 10 years ago, which gives us a certain competitive advantage.”

TU via InsideEVs, HybridCars.com

 

May 19

Toyota CEO Says Move to EVs May Be Boring, Costly

 

Toyota is already criticized enough for being boring.

Now its CEO is saying that a market shift toward EVs will be boring and expensive.

This was said by CEO Akio Toyoda even as he leads a special project team that plans to build an EV by 2020, and as it works to catch up to Chevrolet, Tesla, and others in the mainstream EV market.

Those two automakers are releasing affordable EVs with 200-plus miles range – the Bolt and Model 3 – this year (the Bolt is already available in some states, with the full rollout expected by summer). Volkswagen is also expected to have multiple EVs available by 2020 and as many as 30 EV models by 2025, and let’s not forget Nissan’s next Leaf due this year as well.

SEE ALSO: Toyota Collaborating on $35 Million Artificial Intelligence Projects

In an interview with Automotive News, Toyoda appeared indifferent to an all-electric version of the company’s 86 sports coupe that was presented to him by his company’s engineers. He further mused out loud, on the record, about how it might be hard to sell EVs as anything other than point A to point B cars – in other words, how can emotion be injected?

SEE ALSO: Toyota Prius Prime Becoming Hot Commodity On Dealer Lots

“When it comes to electric vehicles, every car, be it the Yaris or whatever, once it is electrified, the acceleration is all the same,” Toyoda said to Automotive News. “The reason I am responsible for EVs as well is that I don’t want to make these cars a commodity. Even with the electrification of the vehicles, I want the prefix ‘I love’ to be affixed to those cars.”

“What I meant was, for an OEM manufacturer, you’re choking yourself. It is commoditizing your vehicle,” Toyoda said.

Toyota 86. Less exciting in EV form to CEO Toyoda.

Toyoda has already pushed for his company’s cars to have more interesting exterior looks and sportier driving dynamics, with some success in both areas. So it’s clear that Toyoda values products that excite.

He’s also aware of how Tesla fans have boosted that brand via their love for the vehicles the boutique automaker produces.

“I want to change the way they work on EVs,” Toyoda said. “Maybe we will call them electric vehicles, but introduce connectivity. Think about Tesla. Tesla is producing cars. And Toyota is producing cars. But what Tesla is producing is something close to an iPhone.”

He’s not just referring to how consumers react to the cars, but also the team he’s put together for the EV scheduled for 2020. Only four employees, including Toyoda, helm the project, while the rest come from suppliers. This is done to mimic the flexibility of a startup company.

Toyoda has his work cut out for him, due to Toyota’s past reputation as a maker of boring, reliable cars and the fact that many EVs are seen as rolling appliances. But since automobile purchases are often driven as much by emotion as any other reason, if not more, it makes sense that at least one automotive executive is thinking about how emotion and EVs will work together as the market changes.

Automotive News (sub. req’d), Green Car Reports, HybridCars.com

 
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