Aug 19

Volvo is spending big to build more high-tech hybrids this decade

 

Volvo has received enormous approval for its European-only V60 plug-in diesel hybrid that’s said to offer close to the Volt’s all-electric range (31 miles at up to 74 mph).

Now Volvo says stay tuned for more hybrids and plug-in hybrids to come, as it announced last week a capital expenditure program toward this goal in the amount of 10 times what the Volt was said to have cost to develop.

 

To make an electrified stable of offerings possible, Volvo’s $11 billion global commitment highlighted two new “Drive-E” forced-induction gas engines slated for the U.S.

All Drive-E engines are fully prepped to be combined into hybrid configurations.

Among global offerings, Volvo will also produce a common rail diesel along with a direct-injected gasoline version like the U.S. spec versions, and both the gas and diesel engines share the same architecture.

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Among the gas versions for the U.S., the T5 Drive-E engine will feature turbocharging to provide 240 horsepower and 258 pounds-feet of torque. The T6 will combine turbocharging with supercharging to deliver 302 horsepower and 295 pounds-feet torque.

Volvo will continue to offer the U.S. its current lineup of all-wheel drive powertrains, along with Drive-E.

The company says U.S. customers can choose between the new engines and some current engines until it transitions solely to Drive-E.

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These powerplants are to replace eight engine architectures on three platforms. They undercut present designs by almost 100 pounds, while reducing emissions “considerably” and improving fuel economy from 13-26 percent.

“We have created smaller, more intelligent engines with power curves that give exciting drivability compared with engines with more cylinders, yet deliver the fuel economy of only four cylinders. In addition, by adding electrification such as plug-in hybrid technology, we will reach power figures in the V8 territory,” said Derek Crabb, vice president Powertrain Engineering at Volvo Car Group.

50540_2_1.aspx
 

Overall, the multi-year push toward Drive-E architecture will include engine development, Volvo’s future Scalable Product Architecture, and other infrastructure and facilities upgrades. Volvo says these are aimed directly at transforming its future toward increased competitiveness and technological independence.

“The launch of our new Drive-E powertrains is an important step in Volvo’s product investment plan that will result in a stronger, more competitive position in the marketplace,” said Volvo Cars of North America President and CEO John Maloney. “A great deal of research went into learning how our customers drive and these highly efficient, low-emission engines were designed to provide greater customer choice while retaining the performance attributes our customers expect.”

Electrified Future

The new Drive-E engines are prepared for future electrification with components such as the integrated starter generator, which can be connected easily. Their compact size means that the electric motor can be fitted in the front or rear of the vehicle, Volvo notes, and the battery pack will be located in the center of the car.

volvotrailer
 

“A four-cylinder, transversely mounted engine is a way of building up for an electrified future,” said Crabb. “Hybrids are definitely going to be a dominant part of the top end of our range.”

Other tech features are as follows:

• Friction reduction: Friction-reduction measures have been employed throughout the engine, including ball bearings on the camshaft, high-speed continuous variable valve timing and intelligent heat management with a fully variable electric water pump.

• Start-Stop and Brake Regeneration: All Drive-E engines feature start-stop and brake regeneration. The technology uses brake pressure measurement to trigger when to stop and start the engine. The start/stop system is programmed to shut down the engine immediately when the car reaches a standstill. An electric pump keeps oil pressure up in the automatic gearbox while the engine is stopped. The system also includes an improved starter engine.

• Turbo Only or Turbo and Supercharger: Using the supercharger to boost the low end torque gives the gasoline 302-horsepower T6 engine a big, naturally aspirated feel. The mechanically linked compressor starts to function immediately at low revs, while the turbocharger kicks in when the airflow builds up.

• Eight-speed gearbox: To deliver the desired responsive, smooth and fuel-efficient drivability, the engines are teamed either with a new eight-speed automatic gearbox tuned for improved efficiency. “Think of it like having more gears on a bicycle — you get more chance to operate it efficiently depending on the road conditions. With our new gearbox you get a bigger ratio spread – in essence it gives you better chance of getting good fuel economy from the engine,” said Crabb.


 

Volvo says “Drive-E” is also its name for all innovations made to reduce the impact on the environment. Previously during the development of this architecture, it was called Volvo Engine Architecture (VEA).

The Drive-E moniker “encompasses everything from a sustainable, efficient and clean manufacturing process, along with the use of recyclable materials, to efficient and low-emission powertrains – without compromising performance,” says the company.

So far Volvo is not showing off any direct competitors to the Volt, but a U.S. spec gas-powered V60 PHEV is said to be due in 2014.

Beyond this, the handwriting is on the wall – $11 billion worth, probably more than that other big spender, Nissan, has spent on its all-electric blitzkrieg to gain a head start.

This entry was posted on Monday, August 19th, 2013 at 5:55 am and is filed under General. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Both comments and pings are currently closed.

COMMENTS: 40


  1. 1
    nasaman

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (6:18 am)

    Concise Summary, V60 AWD PHEV**: “The V60 Plug-in Hybird is one of the first ever plug-in diesel hybrids*. The front wheels of the V60 Plug-in Hybrid will be driven by a five-cylinder 2.4-litre D5 turbodiesel engine*, which produces 215 horsepower and maximum torque of 440 Nm. The rear axle features ERAD (Electric Rear Axle Drive) in the form of an electric motor producing 70 horsepower, which receives its power from a 12 kWh lithium-ion battery pack. The car features a 6 (or 8) -speed automatic transmission. The vehicle will have 3 driving modes: Pure, which offers as much electric power as possible; Hybrid, which uses both diesel and battery power in an efficient manner; and Power, which combines the diesel engine and electric motor to offer the quickest acceleration. The V60 PHEV is now available for purchase in Europe and will be coming to the US in early 2014″ **.

    Unlike most (if not all) EVs thus far announced by major manufacturers, this handsome & powerful vehicle will tow my boat —here’s hoping GM, Ford and others follow their lead!!!
    volvotrailer.jpg

    *The US model will feature a gasoline engine instead of the 2.4 litre turbodiesel engine.
    ** http://www.pluginamerica.org/vehicles/volvo-v60-plug-hybrid
    ***AER: 31miles from the 12 kWh lithium-ion battery
    ****Top Speed: 143mph


  2. 2
    nasaman

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (6:58 am)

    I find the upscale, understated interior (as well as its exterior styling) very appealing…
    volvo_v60%20phev_3.jpg


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    Eco_Turbo

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (7:06 am)

    Great to see the emphasis on performance, I can’t imagine being fun to drive will hurt sales at all. And from what I can tell it doesn’t seem to affect AER very much either, considering these appear to be full function vehicles.


  4. 4
    James McQuaid

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (7:26 am)

    Watching Volvo join the march toward vehicle electrification (along with G.M., Nissan, BMW, Toyota, etc.) must be discouraging for the big oil servile self-seekers who tried to kill the Volt in its crib.

    This hall of shame includes the following perfidious politicians:
    Mitt Romney
    Newt Gingrich
    Sarah Palin
    Herman Cain
    Rep. Darrell Issa
    Rep. Mike Kelly

    as well as by these smear specialist media personalities:
    Neil Cavuto
    Bill O’Reilly
    Rush Limbaugh
    Lou Dobbs
    Mark Modica

    and these extremist breeding ground think tanks:
    The Mackinaw Center
    The Heritage Foundation
    The Cato Institute.

    Treachery comes in many forms my friend.


  5. 5
    Raymondjram

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (7:47 am)

    My wife had three Volvos on lease (her job paid a vehicle allowance for them) during the 1980s while I had my two GM vehicles (my job didn’t have such an allowance). There were more expensive, and were more troublesome to repair. One was the Turbo model and one day it lost power and would not move more than 20 MPH. The shop revealed that the wastegate was locked. Another broke the radiator mount and the engine was overheating because the cooling fan wasn’t spinning. I had to buy the Haynes manual to understand how to do some serving myself.

    After she quit, we returned the last Volvo to the lease, then she used my Buick Regal (which I still have), and now she has a Chevy Equinox. We have seen the newer Volvos but we will not buy or lease another. It was a safe vehicle, but I spent more time and money fixing them than for my GM vehicles. I don’t recommend them, even if they had the only hybrid that can tow a boat!

    Raymond


  6. 6
    Lee Anderson

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (7:51 am)

    Not much new here. GM people have done most of this with Volt development. Volt engine develops as much torque without being blown. I fail to see anything new here.


  7. 7
    nasaman

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (8:27 am)

    Raymondjram: We have seen the newer Volvos but we will not buy or lease another…

    Lee Anderson: I fail to see anything new here…

    I understand, guys. But note that what’s new is the V60 PHEV featured here has 2 fully-redundant power sources —a FWD ICE and a RWD motor— and that each one can be operated independently.


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    haroldC

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (8:48 am)

    Wow……..143 mph!!! Great selling point ! l wonder what % will ever try to do that and test the courts which can levy a $10,000 fine for getting caught.(for going 30 mph over the speed limit in Ontario Canada)
    haroldC


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    kdawg

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (8:52 am)

    11 billion.. putting that Chinese money to work!


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    kdawg

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (8:59 am)

    nasaman: AER: 31miles from the 12 kWh lithium-ion battery

    We’ll see how that figure holds up. How much of that 12kWH is usable, and do they use a TMS?


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    Texas

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (9:39 am)

    The fanboys fail to see the good in this news – this is huge money being invested and that means the others have to follow, or fall behind. Electrification is the way forward and the cost of oil will continue to rise as the proportion of non-conventional oil resources like tar sands and oil shale to conventional resources moves higher.

    The price of oil will be highly volatile but the cost will continue to march upward until humans no longer burn fossil fuels for energy.


  12. 12
    kdawg

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (9:42 am)

    James McQuaid,

    Don’t worry. Once plug-ins become the norm, these people/groups will say they were always behind them and just love them now. (think Tesla)


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    hvacman

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (11:31 am)

    Hopefully, GM’s future towing-capable EV’s will let you also bring your mast when you tow your sailboat to the lake;)


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    steve

     

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (11:31 am)

    nasaman:
    I understand, guys. But note that what’s new is the V60 PHEV featured here has 2 fully-redundant power sources —a FWD ICE and a RWD motor— and that each one can be operated independently.

    Looks like a recipe for unpredictable handling if whatever keeps them in sync goes wrong.


  15. 15
    Blind Guy

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (11:46 am)

    We looked at 2 models on display at a local high-end outdoor mall. The cars looked to be very comfortable, good looking and probably very safe. These versions would have easily cost us as much as our Volt, so I can just imagine how much these through-the-road plug-ins will cost! I don’t want to help this Chinese owned company now anyway. Can you imagine if China would have been allowed the opportunity to buy GM for pennies on the dollar when they were going belly-up? IMO, if gasoline prices in the U.S. were what they should be at; I think Plug-ins would be selling much faster than they currently are. I also can’t see myself buying another Plug-in unless it gets at least as much AER as we do now. People really do spend a lot of money for transportation 


  16. 16
    pjkPA

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (12:01 pm)

    Lee Anderson:
    Not much new here. GM people have done most of this with Volt development.Volt engine develops as much torque without being blown. I fail to see anything new here.

    I agree… plus no mention of price?
    Funny how price is not a issue when talking about the competition?

    My Volt is doing fantastic here in PA better than expected… have not been to a gas station in 8 months.. used 5.6 gallons of gas and still get comments about only getting 38mpg. I have a wattmeter on the charger that is telling me that I’m using about $4 per week to drive the Volt…costing me to drive a week what it cost me to dive my ICE in a day.
    When I tell people about the Volts performance … they don’t believe it.
    I was on vacation last week … actually missed driving the Volt … had to drive a ICE all week.


  17. 17
    Jackson

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (12:09 pm)

    … “a U.S. spec gas-powered V60 PHEV is said to be due in 2014″:

    http://www.pluginamerica.org/vehicles/volvo-v60-plug-hybrid

    Take a look at the first comment at this link:

    “How many times does Mercedes, VW, Volvo, and smart car have to disappoint us by promises of bringing Euro-spec rides to the US only to be pressured by a focus group, or the EPA not to?”

    I think this may be a mostly unseen factor behind the European EV push: How can the EPA / Environmental focus groups say no, even to a high performance hybrid? The American high-end market is economically important to all of these makes, and the handwriting is on the wall: Hybrids may become the best way to storm the gates. Also (and this is good news for us), all of these high-end European makers compete on the basis of advanced engineering; and electrification has apparently come to be seen as the most desirable, most competitive of all.

    As far as direct competition for the Volt, the USD price is TBD and likely to be quite high; though this won’t stop the more well-heeled buyers (as we’ve already seen with Tesla’s “S”). These buyers are a minority though, and the Volt (like the LEAF) is aimed at a broader market. More units will move there as prices continue to fall, making a greater impact.


  18. 18
    Jackson

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (12:21 pm)

    nasaman,

    If it’s towing you want, keep your eye on VIA; particularly where it may influence other makes. Only a ton of towing for now, but this could grow (and what is the figure for the Volvo? Frankly that pic looks Photoshopped to me, the angle of car-to-boat looks wrong). I have a feeling also that VIA will eventually offer a ‘package’ (or be special ordered) through GMC.

    nasaman,

    Alas, there is no particular reason to suppose that Volvo is following NASA design philosophy. You have to support redundancy at the software level, or the hardware does you no good. In terms of reliability, I’d particularly watch out for Audi and Volkswagen over Volvo though; unless things have improved significantly in the last decade or so.


  19. 19
    Jackson

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (12:52 pm)

    James McQuaid,

    Opposition to the Volt has come from more than one side. Bob Lutz, in his GM departure comments, actually said that it was difficult to get permission to build the Volt in the first place (after all, Hydrogen is just 10 years away*; just ask GM). We’ve all lamented the limited Volt advertising GM has offered. Some resistance to the Volt has come from very close to home.

    And how many trolls did we suffer through here who saw the Volt as an EV / environmental “traitor” for carrying an engine? It has suffered too from media of all political stripes; not just the alternative ones.

    If you understand anything at all about the Right, you know there is strong opposition to feeling “forced” by the government to take any action. Which side is it which hopes for higher gas prices, and has actively opposed development of domestic oil resources expressly for that purpose (to favor BEV adoption and Green energy)? In the near term, higher energy prices hurts the entire economy, and everyone in it. You have to expect some political push back.

    Please understand; I’m not saying that the ‘smear artists’ are right, nor do I excuse them; but “treachery” is too strong a word. The Right sees itself as preserving freedoms threatened by Big Government; though picking the Volt as a poster child for their entire struggle is unacceptable and ill-informed.

    Where I live, deep in Red territory, I see plenty of objective proof that the case for EVs is essentially apolitical. When people are left to choose for themselves, it isn’t always the wrong way. Citizens deserve more respect from all the power-seeking politicians.

    I know which side most of you stand on, but come on guys; let’s play fair.

    *And GM may be right; after all, Hydrogen has been 10 years away for almost 4 decades. ;-)


  20. 20
    kdawg

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (1:08 pm)

    pjkPA: I was on vacation last week … actually missed driving the Volt

    I experience that too. Volt withdrawal. Or going Volt-turkey.


  21. 21
    MotoEV

     

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (1:49 pm)

    Texas,

    I agree… What is being missed by many is that the competition is:

    1) investing huge amounts of capital in the Hybrid / EV space
    2) communicating a strategy for delivering their technology across the product range
    3) going to crowd out the EV/Hybrid markets for those WITHOUT A COMPREHENSIVE EV/HYBRID PRODUCT STRATEGY AND ARE TOO SLOW TO RESPOND

    Volvo is now Chinese owned and will probably be the 1st manufacturer to sell the SAME product in China and the western world. GM is banking on growth in China (as their largest market) and it is not guaranteed.

    GM: Tell us the next three Voltec products coming down the pipe


  22. 22
    kdawg

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (3:04 pm)

    MotoEV: Volvo is now Chinese owned and will probably be the 1st manufacturer to sell the SAME product in China and the western world

    Doesn’t Tesla sell the same in both markets? Also Gm with the Chevy Volt? I’m sure there are many others.


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    kdawg

     

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (3:13 pm)

    MotoEV: GM: Tell us the next three Voltec products coming down the pipe

    Speaking of China, remember this from 2 years ago? I wonder what the status is.

    http://media.gm.com/media/us/en/gm/news.detail.html/content/Pages/news/us/en/2011/Sep/0920_saic.html

    SAIC AND GM SIGN AGREEMENT FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT


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    kdawg

     

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (4:07 pm)

    OT: anyone know where there’s good pics of last week’s Woodward Dream Cruise showing the Silent Cruise? All I can find is stuff like this.

    dreamcruise_zpsebffd2ef.jpg


  25. 25
    Noel Park

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (4:30 pm)

    Blind Guy: I don’t want to help this Chinese owned company now anyway.

    #15

    I’m with you. +1

    Volvo = meh IMHO.


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    MotoEV

     

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (5:03 pm)

    kdawg,

    Sorry for not clarifying. The 1st Chinese owned company selling virtually the same product in the East and West. Up to this point, Chinese produced products have been perceived as substandard. I believe we will see a Volvo built in China for Western consumption.

    http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2013/06/made-in-china-volvos-to-be-exported-to-other-markets/


  27. 27
    Streetlight

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (5:17 pm)

    kdawg: Speaking of China, remember this from 2 years ago? I wonder what the status is.

    Ford sold only the VOLVO car company. The extremely valuable VOLVO brand is not Chinese owned, its owned by a joint brand management entity in Sweden. The Chinese company can sell the VOLVO brand for cars & small trucks only under the VOLVO brand.

    SKF the VOLVO parent is one giant company. So these two really neat engines Jeff writes about are pretty much done in Sweden. (Take notice both are turbo driven.) Of course there’s ball bearing features, SKF is a world leader in ball bearings.


  28. 28
    kdawg

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (6:04 pm)

    Streetlight: Ford sold only the VOLVO car company

    That’s really the only Volvo company I’m concerned with. I don’t plan to buy a Volvo bus anytime soon. (I wonder who thought the “male” symbol was a good emblem?)


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    Streetlight

     

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (7:04 pm)

    kdawg: Streetlight: Ford sold only the VOLVO car company
    That’s really the only Volvo company I’m concerned with. I don’t plan to buy a Volvo bus anytime soon. (I wonder who thought the “male” symbol was a good emblem?)

    That was not a paid advertisement.

    Anyways… the war god Mars/Ares symbol is ancient representation of iron. Good grief.

    The idea being Sweden is known for fine iron. If Google says — must be…


  30. 30
    usaisgreat

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (7:22 pm)

    The Volvo will have a premium price on it as they always had such. However it will be good to see other manufacturers come to the plug-in party as this will help to get those that are negative on the VOLT to accept plug-in technology. I can just see many people that have been vocal against the VOLT technology to be squirming to find their rational to own a BMW plug-in, Volvo plug-in, or other plug-in product.

    The conventional ICE car will be looked upon as a single, forced upon the user one energy source old technology (oil only), while those in the know will migrate towards the VOLT like vehicles with multi-faceted energy source which frees up the consumer as to competition in the energy market and more importantly frees up foreign oil almost immediately.

    So while being the lead dog gets all those standing on the sidelines trying to deny acceptance, the followers will be accepted much more easily.


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    Eco_Turbo

     

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (8:07 pm)

    haroldC,

    You know, they do have to catch you! ;-)


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    Eco_Turbo

     

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (8:11 pm)

    kdawg,

    The car may be in mountain mode without putting it in mountain mode, especially if you’re in performance mode.


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    Eco_Turbo

     

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (8:18 pm)

    Jackson: the Volt (like the LEAF) is aimed at a broader market. More units will move there as prices continue to fall, making a greater impact.

    Was it Tagamet who used to say, “from your lips to Gods’s ears”? or was it Noel Park?


  34. 34
    Raymondjram

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (9:03 pm)

    nasaman:
    I understand, guys. But note that what’s new is the V60 PHEV featured here has 2 fully-redundant power sources —a FWD ICE and a RWD motor— and that each one can be operated independently.

    No, thank you! If the GM dealers will not sell the Volt, I doubt that the Volvo dealers will sell their hybrid here. Besides, it still has an engine and that is the part that gave me problems before.

    Raymond


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    kdawg

     

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (9:38 pm)

    Streetlight: Anyways… the war god Mars/Ares symbol is ancient representation of iron. Good grief.

    Still makes me chuckle. Not that a bow-tie is much better. And I have no idea what Toyota’s thing is.


  36. 36
    James McQuaid

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    Aug 19th, 2013 (11:08 pm)

    @Jackson:

    Hello Jackson, it’s been a long time… For those of you who do not know Jackson, permit me to acquaint you:

    Jackson was nicknamed “Old Hickory” because of his toughness and aggressive personality; he fought in duels, some fatal to his opponents. He was a wealthy slaveholder. He expanded the spoils system during his presidency to strengthen his political base.

    Jackson’s aggressive enforcement of the Indian Removal Act, resulted in the forced relocation of thousands of Native Americans to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma).

    The Trail of Tears is a name given to this forced relocation and movement of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The removal included many members of the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations, among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory in eastern sections of the present-day state of Oklahoma. The phrase originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831.

    Many Native Americans suffered from exposure, disease and starvation on the route to their destinations. Many died, including 60,000 of the 130,000 relocated Cherokee, intermarried and accompanying European-Americans, and the 2,000 African-American free blacks and slaves owned by the Cherokee they took with them.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trail_of_Tears

    So, after all these years, here you are making excuses for Mitt Romney. Makes sense after all…


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    Aug 20th, 2013 (8:23 am)

    Jackson: In the near term, higher energy prices hurts the entire economy, and everyone in it. You have to expect some political push back.

    We don’t need/have higher energy prices, just higher oil prices. There are other choices for energy. The push back is from those who make $ on the oil trade.


  38. 38
    Jackson

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    Aug 20th, 2013 (11:06 am)

    James McQuaid,

    How can you live in a Universe with only one side? Don’t you keep bumping your head?


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    Jackson

     

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    Aug 20th, 2013 (11:33 am)

    kdawg,

    I’m not telling you anything the administration itself hasn’t said about gasoline prices. Obama did say he hoped prices increase gradually, but the oil markets are wondrously complex things. It’s hard to say how quickly a particular action will take effect, or even if an effect is the one you wanted. Blaming “Big Oil” for all of it is more than a little simplistic.

    Oil has profound effects on virtually every aspect of economic health. “If you’ve got it, a truck brought it.” Whatever “it” may be, costs will rise along with Diesel. There are also trains, airplanes and chemical production dependent on petroleum. Increased oil cost will affect manufacturing, agriculture and more which vehicle electrification won’t begin to touch for decades. Have personal EVs even reached 1/10th % of the national fleet? How long will it be before they constitute even 1%? Even at 100%, this will make only a small contribution.

    Yes, Natural Gas is available, but replacing other fossil fuels will require a larger scale continuation of Fracking for wells which have limited capacities compared with traditional ones. How long will the gas boom be sustainable? Will it be as long as any large-scale conversion would take? And this is aside from possible environmental costs.

    As for energy at large: You have heard Obama’s position on Coal, I take it. Wind energy, at least, is growing in capacity; but not quickly enough to compensate for the lack of a fossil fuel Obama wants to put “out of business” (presumably within his remaining term). Other alternative sources are even less ready to take up the slack. The near term result of this will be higher electricity prices. Awkwa-a-ard …

    I’m not saying that replacing fossil fuel shouldn’t happen, just that it can’t be rushed. There is too much advancement by fiat going on, which will only hamper future efforts.


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    kdawg

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    Aug 20th, 2013 (12:25 pm)

    Jackson: Increased oil cost will affect

    Yes, it will “affect” actions. It will force people/businesses to make choices they have brushed aside for years because of artificially cheap oil. You are a free market person. Let oil cost what it really should on the free market (no subsidies in any form), and let’s see what happens to the price.