Oct 11

Voltec power train improvements for the new Cadillac ELR

 

By George S. Bower
 


 

Traction Motor Uprate

 

An analysis was conducted to predict what traction motor uprate would be needed to get quicker acceleration times for the ELR (or Volt Super Sport please).

A computer simulation was written in Microsoft Excel with Visual Basic to predict 0-60 mph times as a function of traction motor size.

Input to the model comes as: 1) torque speed map for the traction motor (MGB) and 2) drag characteristic

 

 

A scaler on the torque speed map was included so the map could be scaled up and the improved acceleration times observed for various motor uprates.

The motor map used is presented here.

It is a Delco Remy HVH250 (thanks tboult). This map was scaled to the Volt’s motor rating of 368 Nm and 111 Kw rating as the baseline and then with uprates of 20 percent and 40 percent. Looking at the Delco Remy link, there are some interesting data relative to 60-second peak loads and performance at voltages as high as 700V so perhaps a voltage increase is in the cards for ELR.

The results of the study are shown in figure 2

 

 

The baseline Volt acceleration time is 8.8 seconds. A 20 percent increase in torque drops the time to 7.3 seconds and a 40 percent increase in torque drops the 0-60 time to 6.2 seconds This is my estimate of where ELR will end up … not quite as quick as the Tesla Model S but still lots of fun. (The 60-kwh Model S 0-60 MPH time is 5.9 seconds as shown here.

I can say this because, as a Volt owner, the Volt is already extremely fun to drive with an 8.5 second 0-60 time so 6.2 seconds would be a blast – especially with traction control off!

Therefore, a 150-Kw traction motor is my estimate for MGB. Some of this uprate could come from the 60-second peak load and/or a voltage increase.

What does this mean about battery sizing? We are pretty sure that GM has an improved battery waiting in the wings. This new battery will have a higher kwh/lb rating and also will have a higher power (C) rating.

 

 

As shown in figure 3 the increase to 150 Kw motor should be easily attainable with the new battery. The Volt is currently running 6.9C which is not that aggressive. An increase to 9.4C should be a piece of cake.

Since we are expecting a higher kwh/lb rating for this new battery, we can expect an improvement in range, or if we hold the range to the existing 40 miles then we would see a reduction in pack weight.

In addition to the potential weight savings in the battery, we could also see some select use of composites or aluminum resulting in additional weight savings.

Note that these potential weight reductions are NOT included in the 0-60 MPH acceleration times so every pound we take out of the existing Volt weight gets us closer to the Model S bogey.

ICE Uprate

 

But what of the ICE? If we scale the existing ICE up by the same 1.4 scaler that we came up with for the traction motor, we would have a 70 Kw ICE. However a somewhat larger ICE could be justified due to the performance orientation of ELR.
ICE uprate is summarized in figure 4.

 

 

I see direct injection and variable valve timing for ELR but we will NOT see a turbo version as suggested in the past by our good friend Statik (Jay Cole) as shown here.

Super Sport Mode

 

Even with a 100-Kw ICE, we have an ICE that is smaller than the 150 Kw traction motor so in order to support the 150 Kw traction motor we need to supplement with batter power.

Proposed here is an addition of super sport mode for ELR.

 

 

In super sport mode the battery buffer is increased from the current 0.5 kwh to perhaps 1 kwh or more as shown in figure 6 and more time is spent in series mode.

 

 

While operating in super sport mode gives us some nice performance, unfortunately it is not all that efficient from a fuel consumption point of view as explained here so we want to use this super sport mode sparingly.

We select super sport mode when we want more performance but at the expense of MPG. When operating in normal mode ELR reverts to “eco minded” ways of the current Volt engaging power split whenever possible and minimizing battery charging with the ICE.

A summary of predictions for ELR is presented in figure 7

 

 

Conclusion

 

ELR will be an extremely fun vehicle to drive with acceleration times approaching Model S but requiring only minor modifications to the Voltec drive train. Plus we have retained all the efficiency of the basic Volt … Assuming we can keep our finger of the

Super Sport Mode button :-)

Cheers Volt Heads!

This entry was posted on Thursday, October 11th, 2012 at 5:55 am and is filed under General. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Both comments and pings are currently closed.

COMMENTS: 38


  1. 1
    Jackson

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (6:16 am)

    “In super sport mode the battery buffer is increased from the current 0.5 kwh to perhaps 1 kwh or more [ ... ]“

    I wonder if the pack will have more than one kind of cell to divide the work of buffering and overall high performance from conventional energy storage? A more expensive cell used in smaller quantity could have an extended cycle life and higher power, which would be concerns in a larger buffer (or even a whole pack worked harder). The regular LG cells would be used for most of the actual storage, with perhaps a third being the more expensive type. (I am thinking of cash-strapped GM trying to cut costs for a future Volt. This would also keep volumes for the LG battery plant relatively high).

    On the other hand, a pack which is merely larger would perhaps allow each cell to work no harder than in the current Volt during high performance (although “larger” implies more space to accommodate). This argument bodes well for longer AERs with less aggressive driving.

    “Therefore, a 150-Kw traction motor is my estimate for MGB.”

    In the same economizing vein, could there be a larger version of MGA (the “generator/motor” which kicks in for extra acceleration in the current Volt) instead? It would also have more power as a generator, allowing the buffer to ‘refill’ more quickly in CS mode.

    Alternatively, a second MGA could ride the same shaft as either motor to provide the power increase, preventing a new design cycle while increasing overall volume for the parts. Though less elegant, this could provide for the extra performance power without new larger motors.

    Thanks for this very thorough analysis.


  2. 2
    Loboc

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (6:57 am)

    250Kw total! This thing should be pretty quick!

    Possibly GM would have to strengthen the gear set and drive axels making good parts for a truck version.

    I would opt for less battery weight and the same AER. Adding lightness is a good thing for performance.


  3. 3
    Jackson

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (7:03 am)

    Seriously OT:

    As mentioned in an earlier comment, I am overseas; presently in Chisinau, the Capitol of The Republic of Moldova. Here is a Moldovan EV roundup:

    Actually, this is pretty much it:

    14t4z9w.jpg

    This is a Soviet-era system, but very extensive throughout the Capitol; and they are in the process of renovating it:

    149v4at.jpg
    (An original bus following a new one).

    This system seems primitive to us, but it works well for the Moldovans, and is highly utilized. These overhead catenaries were infamous in Western cities for producing sparks, but I’ve only seen one since I’ve been here. There are no dimming lights or noticeable emf emissions (not affecting modern digital networks, including cel and wifi). I cannot help but wonder if this idea needs another look in this era of economic austerity. Perhaps a modern version would include a small battery pack to act as more of a buffer (and to store regen without putting sudden pulses back on the lines).

    This little runabout is the only pure EV I saw, in the largest wine cellar in the world: at Cricova. Sited in an underground limestone mine, the cellar is 84 meters down, and has 120 km of tunnels (convert if you want to, I’m not going to bother ;-) ). Wine is a very big deal in Moldova.

    33kus05.jpg

    Here is a look down one of the tunnels:

    iw3uia.jpg

    There are more than a million bottles in this gallery, which are all turned by hand every 6 months:

    zkljja.jpg

    … but I digress. ;-)

    Here is the only hybrid I’ve seen. One of our hosts told me that he thought there were maybe seven in the Country. Even at $1.70 a liter, you can’t save enough to make hybrids a paying proposition. They are still recovering from being part of the Communist block, and there is not a lot of money here. As a result, Moldovans are severely practical.

    14bm694.jpg

    And here is a non-EV note:

    We’ve been told that the Cruze was released overseas before it came to America; and here is one “in the wild:”

    2e3bcyb.jpg

    I cannot say these are extremely popular, but there are quite a few of them.

    Sorry for the threadjack, but there is a 7 hour time difference, and I normally can’t post at a reasonable time in the US.

    Next stop, Austria …


  4. 4
    gsned57

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (7:58 am)

    Jackson,

    Hey Jackson cool pics! Seattle still uses overhead power downtown for their buses and I don’t remember seeing too many sparks when I lived there.

    George, very cool post today. It’s nice to use my engineering brain for a little while this morning and deviate from my normal powerpoint/excel engineering that I’ve been doing lately.


  5. 5
    MrEnergyCzar

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (8:04 am)

    Well done George. Love the Super Sport name. Sounds like you’ll be having an early prototype ELR?

    MrEnergyCzar


  6. 6
    Nelson

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (8:08 am)

    This past August I read a piece about GE developing a lighter more efficient electric motor aimed for use in EV’s and hybrids. I wonder which auto manufacturer will partner with them.
    http://www.tgdaily.com/sustainability-brief/65003-ge-wants-a-more-efficient-motor

    NPNS!
    Volt#671


  7. 7
    Bonaire

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (8:15 am)

    >> This new battery will have a higher kwh/lb rating and also will have a higher power (C) rating.

    I wonder how much higher kWh/lb? If that’s the case, then the physical size of today’s Volt 15Ah prismatic could/should be replaced with hopefully new 20Ah same-sized cells. That is the solution there to both the capacity and the C-rating draw as the same cell physical size at the same C-rating could produce more power. 15Ah at 9C = 135W while 20Ah at even a lower 8C = 160W per cell. String them together in similar triplets in-series and you’ll have the same T-pack with 288 cells giving 21+ kWh of storage and a lot more power output potential. The one thing such cells could do is shrink the T-pack to 14kWh using 2-cell pairs in series for the Volt and give that 5th seat in the back – but would engineers allow 10.8kWh of 14kWh total to be used? I hope we do see 20Ah cells in a 21kWh configuration which could go into a CUV or MPV-5.

    The C draw is important mainly for acceleration “spurts” or short-duration peak-draw. Not for cruising on the highway. A higher-capacity cell really doesn’t need a higher C draw-rating if the power needs of the motor is similarly-higher but these cells are not doing as much as even typical hobby-grade Li-Poly cell packs used in larger-scale 3D flying helicopter applications which are pretty intense.


  8. 8
    Bob

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (8:33 am)

    Do we know when GM will begin supplying their own electric motors?

    Do we know when the batteries will be made in Michigan?


  9. 9
    Raymondjram

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (8:45 am)

    If the Cadillac ELR will have a more powerful battery, and we know that P = V x A, then both values of voltage and current must be increased. As an EE I would recommend increasing the Voltage over increasing the current due to several physical factors.

    Current is the measure of electrons per second as amperes (actually it is one coulomb per second where a coulomb of electrons is about 6.02 x 10 to the 23rd power if you want an exact count), and it is a physical property, so the size of the components determine the amount of current that can pass. Increasing the current requires larger gauge wires for the entire circuit, larger transistors, diodes, resistors, relay contacts, and wire gauge inside the electric motor wiring. All of this adds weight to an already heavy Voltec system.

    Voltage is a measure of electromagnetic pressure (such as gas and liquid pressures inside pipes), and any increase need only to improve the insulation of the wire (a chemical property) to prevent any leakage or shorts, and improve the breakdown voltage of the transistors, diodes, capacitors, and other electronic components. This last value is also a chemical property but much costlier to improve. Yet there is no weight increase for higher voltage. Inside any laptop, portable game and DVD player, in most cellphones, and in every flat screen TV there is a voltage inverter that generates from 120 to over 300 VDC for the liquid crystal display (LCD), so we have the experience of working with high voltages near computer electronics and in portable devices.

    So if GM needs more electrical power in the Cadillac ELR battery, they have to add more cells in series, then upgrade the control electronics, cables, and motor windings to handle higher voltages. Only the added cells will increase the weight.

    Raymond


  10. 10
    George S. Bower

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (8:57 am)

    Jackson:

    In the same economizing vein, could there be a larger version of MGA (the “generator/motor” which kicks in for extra acceleration in the current Volt) instead? It would also have more power as a generator, allowing the buffer to ‘refill’ more quickly in CS mode.

    Jackson,

    Inherent in the uprate is an MGA increase to match the ICE. I should have included that in the chart oops.

    Thx for pointing that out


  11. 11
    GSP

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (9:03 am)

    Nice article. I really like the idea of 1.4x torque increase and 0-60 in the sixes. More important, I would like extra range much more than a smaller, lighter, battery. Lastly, I don’t see much need for a more powerful ICE generator. Perhaps enough to allow climbing mountains at 70 mph without mountain mode. Anything beyond that would not be useful, since vehicle performance is provided by the electric motor and battery, independent of the ICE, which only has to provide the average, continuous, power required.

    I am not sure what is being proposed for “super sport mode.” If it is running the ICE with a full battery to get more power, like the Fisker Karma, I DO NOT want that. I want full power in pure EV mode, period. If that means having less power, so be it. Better would be to have the battery sized to handle the max power capability of the traction motor(s), so the ICE could not help anyway.

    GSP


  12. 12
    George S. Bower

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (9:04 am)

    Loboc:
    250Kw total! This thing should be pretty quick!

    Possibly GM would have to strengthen the gear set and drive axels

    The ICE and the traction motor power is not additive. In power split, if you ask for full power out of the ICE it goes to high RPM which in turn drives traction motor MGB to negative RPMs rendering it useless as a traction motor.

    150 Kw is max. Not sure how much more this 4ET50 transaxle can take. I sent WOT a email and asked him but I haven’t got an answer yet. I think he’s pretty busy at work.


  13. 13
    George S. Bower

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (9:22 am)

    GSP:

    I am not sure what is being proposed for “super sport mode.”If it is running the ICE with a full battery to get more power, like the Fisker Karma, I DO NOT want that.

    GSP

    about all that SS mode does is increase the battery buffer in extended range mode so we have battery power when we need it. As Walter Crowe has noted thru his use of dashdaq, when you demand full accel the volt reverts to series mode from power split. In addition to increased buffer the engineers could change the programming to keep ELR locked in series mode more. Sort of like if your running hard on a race track and instead of shifting into fourth you leave it in 3rd because you have another curve to go thru up ahead.


  14. 14
    Steve

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (10:19 am)

    Great, but GM would likely get more buyers for a lower cost Volt than a Super Sport version. Lack of acceleration probably isn’t the deal breaker compared to price and lack of a fifth seating position.

    There also might be as many interested in tweaks for economy as there are for hot rodding.


  15. 15
    Loboc

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (10:52 am)

    Steve:
    Great, but GM would likely get more buyers for a lower cost Volt than a Super Sport version.Lack of acceleration probably isn’t the deal breaker compared to price and lack of a fifth seating position.

    There also might be as many interested in tweaks for economy as there are for hot rodding.

    If you sell a bunch of upscale versions, this gives flexibility to lower the price of the entry-level versions. The more units (of any ilk) sold means better economies of scale.

    The current Volt doesn’t have a ‘lack of acceleration’, but, she’s no sports car either. The ELR should be a luxury sport like CTS-V.

    The reason us hot rodders are interested in electric is the massive torque which is what you need for launch.

    OT.
    There is a Volt driving demo this weekend in my area (DFW). I’m definitely driving one this time even if I gotta bring a chair for the line.


  16. 16
    stuart22

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (10:56 am)

    I would hope acceleration would break the six second barrier and get into the fives. Smart marketing says, don’t settle on a time where the fractions push you just over into a higher number (e.g. 6.2), tweak the fractions down so that they are in the upper end of a lower number (e.g. 5.9).


  17. 17
    Texas

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (11:00 am)

    It is great that GM continues to develop Voltec. We not only need more expensive models, for the even more wealthy and to act as an even greater halo, but also smaller, more practical models (a competitor to the PiP would also be good, seeing the growth rate of that less costly car (to Toyota).

    I hope they are also working on an AWD version or even a four motor version with dynamic vehicle control that can make major and minor adjustments to each wheel for the most complex driving experience man has ever known. The deal with having a motor and controller for each wheel is that no mechanical equivalent could possibly exist that could match that performance and control. It would be analogous to how the new fly-by-light fighter aircraft today could not possibly remain in the air if it were not for their computer controlled electric actuators making thousands of adjustments per second.

    Maybe GM has given up on Voltec and will just keep the Volt around as a high cost, zero profit halo car and try to limit the sales volumes. Hey, it does bring a lot of people into the showrooms who then buy other models.


  18. 18
    Dave K.

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (11:20 am)

    The ELR should be offered in at least two bright colors. If the ELR 0-60′s at 6 seconds. And remains whisper quiet like the Volt. It will need enhanced visibility and/or a synthetic sound to alert everyone and everything that it’s coming. A dark gray silent locomotive, at night, near night clubs or schools. Will need a forward alert system.


  19. 19
    Noel Park

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (11:42 am)

    gsned57: Hey Jackson cool pics! Seattle still uses overhead power downtown for their buses and I don’t remember seeing too many sparks when I lived there.

    #4

    They are very common in San Francisco as well. Very quiet and no emissions from a tailpipe. What’s not to like?

    Thanks for this Jackson. +1

    OT is fine with me if it’s as educational as this.


  20. 20
    Noel Park

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (11:44 am)

    Steve: There also might be as many interested in tweaks for economy as there are for hot rodding.

    #14

    That would be me, LOL. +1


  21. 21
    Noel Park

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (11:47 am)

    As to the Cadillac, same answer as last time, LOL.

    Sorry George.


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    pjkPA

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (12:01 pm)

    Good article… nice hearing about the next Voltec…

    1.4 more torque… how has the rest of the driveline been upgraded to handle this?
    Was it strong enough in the Volt?
    Any talk about a CUV version?


  23. 23
    N Riley

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (12:14 pm)

    I understood everything about this up through the title to this article. George, great job (I guess). No, really I am sure you did a great job.


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    Larry4pyro

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (12:21 pm)

    George, terrific piece! I totally agree that the ELR has to come out with more performance than the current Volt. Let’s hope some of that becomes available for Volt 2.

    I have a question. What happens if the battery does not change? It seems to me that despite the potential for greater performance the electric Voltec drivetrain could allow you to have your cake and eat it too. If driven easily it seems to me the only factor reducing range would be any additional weight. So if the ELR weighed the same as the Volt it could have the same range and MPGe if driven easily, but still be capable of 0-60 in 6 second if driven hard, albeit at the expense of greatly reduced range.


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    Jim I

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (1:50 pm)

    Raymondjram @ #9:

    That is the best description of Voltage and Current I have ever read. Descriptive and very understandable.

    Good work!

    C-5277


  26. 26
    Loboc

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (2:06 pm)

    George S. Bower: drives traction motor MGB to negative RPMs

    I thought that the 4th ‘mode’ (high speed) has the traction motor and the ICE both supplying torque. This would suggest that a tweak to the programming should allow full output from both simultaneously?

    I also read somewhere (CD?) that 0-60 was improved (slightly) in power-split mode which also suggests that they are additive.

    http://www.greencarcongress.com/2010/10/chevy-volt-delivers-novel-two-motor-four-mode-extended-range-electric-drive-system-seamless-driver-e.html


  27. 27
    DonC

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (2:22 pm)

    Great article George. Really layed everything out nicely.

    I have a question about the traction motor. Engines never can exceed their rated output, if in fact they ever attain them. Motors can run at several multiples of their output for short periods, say a minute or two. Given this I don’t see even the existing motor being a limit on faster times. No doubt the ELR will have an upsized traction motor but I don’t see it as necessary. (Note the Remy graphs are based on “typical operating conditions” aka not pushing it).

    In fact I think the current Volt could go 0-60 in under six seconds. You can feel the programmed delay when you take off with the Volt. The car hesitates before it launches. If you eliminated the hesitation the 0-30 times would drop quite a bit. I’ve assumed this is because the tires won’t handle it not because the drive train can’t do it.


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    DonC

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (2:26 pm)

    Loboc: I thought that the 4th ‘mode’ (high speed) has the traction motor and the ICE both supplying torque. This would suggest that a tweak to the programming should allow full output from both simultaneously?

    The ICE doesn’t matter. It works the same way in CS Mode as in CD Mode. In both cases the traction motor holds the sun gear fixed and the MGA provides the torque through the ring gear. That torque can come either from the battery for from the engine.


  29. 29
    dreamcars99

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (3:03 pm)

    This is the most exciting car of the last 10 years, in my view.

    I cannot wait to get my hands on the wheel.


  30. 30
    dreamcars99

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (3:16 pm)

    I hope

    -the range is somewhat better than the Volts
    -the ICE is somewhat more efficient
    -the wheels aren’t too huge, nothing beneficial comes of gigantic wheels. They are less efficient, offer lower traction, worse ride quality, and higher levels of road noise. The potential benefit of improved body control is not really relevant with modern tires.
    -the car has anal-retentive attention paid to rattle control
    -the car is offered with some type of platinum package or high grade leather package, which would be fitting for what is likely to be one of the most desirable cars in the world


  31. 31
    kdawg

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (3:36 pm)

    George – nice article. On my way to Denver so will have to digest it later.

    Jackson – nice pics. How “happy” are the people? (check out Moldova).

    happiness_against_income.jpg


  32. 32
    George S. Bower

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (4:02 pm)

    Loboc: I thought that the 4th ‘mode’ (high speed) has the traction motor and the ICE both supplying torque. This would suggest that a tweak to the programming should allow full output from both simultaneously?

    I also read somewhere (CD?) that 0-60 was improved (slightly) in power-split mode which also suggests that they are additive.

    http://www.greencarcongress.com/2010/10/chevy-volt-delivers-novel-two-motor-four-mode-extended-range-electric-drive-system-seamless-driver-e.html

    It is just the physics of how the PG set works in power split. As I said, If we are running the ICE at high power (and therefore high rpms) ,that sets the ring gear speed. The carrier speed is set by the vehicle speed since it is directly connected to the wheels. This gives us two out of the three speeds for the PG set so we can calculate the 3rd speed (sun speed). The equation for the PG set is NC=.31NS+.69NR. The sun gear (MGB) is -3359 RPM at 75MPH w/the ICE at 4100 RPM. It is acting as a generator and feeding power back around to MGA.

    We could get additive power in series mode however and the Karma runs this way. However we would need a traction motor that could handle the total output (inthis case 150 Kw+ the ICE HP)…..but we don’t need that much power. 150 kw is enough to get the job done. Besides I don’t think the little 4ET50 transaxle would take it. It’s probably a stretch for it to take 150 Kw.


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    George S. Bower

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (4:02 pm)

    dreamcars99:
    This is the most exciting car of the last 10 years, in my view.

    I cannot wait to get my hands on the wheel.

    I second the motion.


  34. 34
    Jackson

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (4:10 pm)

    kdawg: Jackson – nice pics. How “happy” are the people? (check out Moldova).

    Thanks. I have found that the Moldovans, by and large, are a good, friendly people. We are here to visit friends we met in the States, so I already knew this. They seem basically happy, though life is difficult, under limiting economic circumstances.

    I could say more, but it is 11:10 pm local time as I write this …


  35. 35
    Nelson

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (4:30 pm)

    Voltec Variants
    Greater EV distance (better cell chemistry, same or bigger battery)
    Greater power output (more torque, better electric motor, better battery)
    Better CSM/HM fuel efficiency (50+ mpg)
    Less EV distance (less weight, 5 passengers seating, less battery cost)
    Lower Cost
    4 wheel drive
    More luxuries and features, power seats, heated steering wheel, 120 volt outlet in trunk, adaptive cruise control….

    Pie in the sky.
    Greater EV distance, more torque, less weight, 5 passenger seating, more fuel efficient in CSM/HM, lower cost.

    Did I miss anything?
    My Volt is perfect for my needs. :)

    NPNS!
    Volt#671


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    Loboc

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (4:43 pm)

    George S. Bower,

    I see, but, I don’t get it.

    If the traction motor starts supplying more torque opposing the ICE side, the wheels would need to speed up.

    However, I can see how the design would limit you to the max torque of one or the other. Otherwise, you’d be trying to spin something in reverse. (And, in fact that happens.)

    The serial comment is interesting. If the ICE supplies power to the genset and that power is added to the extracted power from the battery, then… you’d probably spray gears and hot metal all over the road.


  37. 37
    George S. Bower

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (5:28 pm)

    Jackson: Thanks.I have found that the Moldovans, by and large, are a good, friendly people.We are here to visit friends we met in the States, so I already knew this.They seem basically happy, though life is difficult, under limiting economic circumstances.

    I could say more, but it is 11:10pm local time as I write this …

    Volt fans check in even if on vacation in foreign lands and at odd times of day.

    Now that’s dedication!!


  38. 38
    Eco_Turbo

     

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    Oct 11th, 2012 (9:35 pm)

    Jackson: I am overseas; presently in Chisinau, the Capitol of The Republic of Moldova.

    Cool, Jackson. Hope you enjoy visiting Europe. I lived in Italy in the late 60s, where they were Eco before Eco was cool.