May 18

Low-cost Revolo bolt-on, plug-in hybrid system touted for its potential

 

Note: This is a different story than usual, but I spoke with an engineer in India for nearly an hour, recorded the whole conversation, and wrote about this expedient solution initially for the emerging Indian market. As you’ll see, it’s technologically flexible and if eventually brought to Europe or the U.S. costs would undeniably go up, but I was curious what you all thought …

While some U.S.-based aftermarket startups are offering high-five-figure hybrid powertrain retrofits, an Indian original-equipment (OE) automotive supply firm is preparing to launch a simple $1,300-$3,500 bolt-on plug-in parallel hybrid system for the masses.

Revolo3
A Revolo-converted Suzuki Alto. The system is covered by several patents, and has already won eight awards.

Having proven its effectiveness in testing so far, the prototype system called “Revolo” is being developed by KPIT Cummins as a gas- or diesel-engine add-on, first for the Indian market, but North American, European and Asian automakers have also already expressed interest in the system.

The anticipated installed cost of its belt-driven electric motor, battery and battery management system (BMS) works out to about one-third the selling price of a new vehicle in India, and the system functions essentially like GM’s eAssist.

While the batteries remain charged for average daily driving needs, fuel efficiency is said to be improved by 35 percent, emissions by 30 percent, and the system’s payback is to be less than two years from time of purchase.

One of the company’s two similarly sized “green” buildings in India. KPIT Cummins says both are designed to allow optimum utilization of natural resources.

If you’ve not heard of KPIT Cummins, briefly, it is a $309 million publicly traded company with over 7,700 employees, based in India, 11-percent owned by Cummins of North America. It has operations in North America, South America, Europe, Japan, Korea, China, and is a supplier to 14 of the top 20 original equipment manufacturers.

In a phone interview this week with one of the engineers involved in the project, we learned this will be the company’s first foray in automotive hardware plus software products, but it is building on its strengths as a behind-the-scenes automotive technology provider to most major automakers.

High Tech Low Tech

 
 

Because a low-cost but effective system had to be devised that could sell itself without any green car conversion incentives in India, KPIT had to think hard to come up with solutions to meet these criteria.

This was all the more challenging when trying to be viable in the light-duty commercial market for such vehicles as cabs and delivery trucks. Many Indian small businesses do not have pockets as deep as, say, American corporate fleet buyers who might spring for something like a $30,000 retrofit by the likes of ALTe or a $70-80,000 turnkey converted pickup from VIA Motors.

So to be sure, the several-hour installation of the Revolo parallel hybrid system upgrade – intended for engines up to 3.0 liters – is not as involved as these series hybrid powertrain retrofits, but it is said to get the job done with a quick return on investment.

Presently two motors are being developed for the system. One is for smaller passenger cars, rated at 2.2 kilowatt (3 horsepower, 22 pound-feet torque), the other is for light commercial vehicles rated at 7.5 kilowatts (10.2 horsepower, 55 pound-feet torque). KPIT Cummins says these continuous-output ratings can be peaked by triple these numbers for up to one minute bursts when needed.


Suzuki Alto on left, Tata 207 pickup on right. The Revolo system is currently made under a joint venture with component supplier Bharat Forge in India.

The result is a system that adds 20-40 percent more power to the internal combustion engine’s output when needed without using any fuel.

The idea is when the engine needs it most – such as at low rpm – the instant torque of the electric motor assists, then tapers off above 1,800-2,000 rpm seamlessly thanks to the sophisticated engine control unit (ECU).

The BMS and ECU that come with the installation are the company’s own design, can be adapted to a variety of battery chemistries, and rely on algorithms fed signals by some retrofitted sensors, as well as the vehicle’s stock sensors used by its ECU sensors.

Another innovation is the use of a high-efficiency AC induction motor, instead of a more costly permanent magnet motor, and unique lead-acid batteries made more durable with carbon technology.

Comparatively inexpensive lead acid batteries are usually considered the bottom of the automotive battery hierarchy, but the added carbon and other technological innovations extend life to around 750 recharge cycles.

In contrast, lithium-ion – which by the way, the system is compatible with also – would normally cost 3-5 times more.

KPIT Cummins has also tested with lithium-ion, but the carbon-enhanced lead-acid chemistry is getting the nod for the Indian market at this juncture. The Revolo system would also work with nickel-metal hydride, but KPIT-Cummins has not gravitated to that chemistry in its development work.

Planned battery range with lead acid is expected to be up to 62 miles for commercial vehicles, and about two-thirds that for commuter applications.

 

The idea is to provide enough range to work for most applications, either light commercial vehicles traveling up to 62 miles per day, or commuters traveling the average 18-25 miles per day in India.

After the batteries deplete, the BMS shuts the system down, the petrol engine continues to operate as normal, and the electric motor simply freewheels with no parasitic drag.

Regenerative braking does also offer 10-12 percent recharging to the batteries on average, extending range somewhat. After the system finally depletes, the regen feature stays operative, and if the batteries reach a sufficient state of charge, the system will automatically turn back on.

Another low-cost, but effective aspect is this plug-in hybrid system uses a basic three-phase plug much like a computer cord. No fancy 5-pin SAE J1772 or CHAdeMO plugs here to pay for – or risk being stolen.

Economics and Pragmatism First

 
 

For now, the Revolo system is intended as an efficiency boost, and not as a speed or acceleration performance enhancer, so 0-60 runs will only barely be improved. The main goal is saving money without costing a lot of money, and the benefits have not been lost on some of KPIT’s existing OE customers who’ve shown interest in the system.

For example, in testing the system mated to a sophisticated modern “European luxury SUV” with over 60 on-board ECUs – which KPIT Cummins was not at liberty to name – the Revolo system provoked no diagnostic error codes. This and other such testing have been taken as a good sign that the computer programming side of KPIT Cummins’ automotive engineered solution is as effective as the low-cost side of it is.

First things first however is to prove it works in the real world. The initial Indian market launch of the lead-acid system is anticipated to be a “lucrative” market with no downside for consumers.

Pending plans are for retrofitting the system through third-party franchises to existing vehicles. At the same time, KPIT Cummins is in discussions with automakers to build the system into new vehicles.

As mentioned, the company says it is talking with automakers about installing it in vehicles intended for the Indian market.

If all goes as intended, the company hopes for OE joint ventures, and in time to see its Revolo plug-in hybrid system installed in vehicles made for other markets also – possibly even the U.S. assuming it works as advertised.

This entry was posted on Friday, May 18th, 2012 at 5:55 am and is filed under General. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Both comments and pings are currently closed.

COMMENTS: 37


  1. 1
    Roy_H

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    May 18th, 2012 (7:59 am)

    Extremely little technical information. “the system functions essentially like GM’s eAssist or Ford’s EcoBoost.” So does that mean it replaces the alternator on the motor?


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    nasaman

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    May 18th, 2012 (8:38 am)

    Roy_H: Extremely little technical information. “the system functions essentially like GM’s eAssist or Ford’s EcoBoost.” So does that mean it replaces the alternator on the motor?

    Yes, it’s conceptually almost exactly like GM’s eAssist —but with fuel savings based on extensive testing of up to 40%! Remember, GM has made eAssist standard on all current Buick Regals!

    /Sorry, my attempts to post references have been blocked as spam; but the graphic below may be helpful…


  3. 3
    nasaman

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    May 18th, 2012 (8:48 am)

    From Jeff’s excellent topic of Dec 13 last year on eAssist…V4-312129960.jpgq80MaxW500.jpg


  4. 4
    James McQuaid

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    May 18th, 2012 (9:12 am)

    I’d love to put one of these on my 1999 Oldsmobile Aurora. Probably not cost practical, as the Volt is all I ever want to drive now.


  5. 5
    ronr64

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    May 18th, 2012 (9:32 am)

    E-assist seems like a no-brainer to me. I would like to see this mild hybrid approach put in all vehicles. Why not? But not as a cobbled on add on but rather designed in from the get go. No need for dual batteries with the lithium one taking up trunk space, design it in. If you cruise through a junk yard sometime check out the emblems on vehicles. It is a good way to see when technology was new and when it became ubiquitous. For example in the late 40’s to mid fifties it is common to see an “automatic” emblem, in the mid-fifties to early 60’s you might see an “air conditioned” emblem on a car, and in the early 70’s the “5 speed” emblem made its appearance. No automaker would think of putting such bragadocious ornaments on a vehicle today as it is no longer something special but rather it has become the standard way of equipping a vehicle. Instead the “hybrid” badges and stickers are prominent. I look forward to the day when they too become passe and it just the way it is done.


  6. 6
    kdawg

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    May 18th, 2012 (10:49 am)

    I guess this is another step in the process of going from gas to electric. R ev olo’s system creates a gas car with electric assist. The Volt is one step closer, being an electric car with gas assist. Eventually all cars will just be all electric, but when that date that occurs is all over the map, depending on who you talk to. In the meantime, more and more companies are filling the gap with products like those from R ev olo.


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    May 18th, 2012 (10:50 am)

    Note: I had to re-type my post a few times to figure out why it was getting marked SPAM. I think the website does not like the percentage symbol.


  8. 8
    Raymondjram

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    May 18th, 2012 (11:05 am)

    nasaman: Yes, it’s conceptually almost exactly like GM’s eAssist —but with fuel savings based on extensive testing of up to 40%! Remember, GM has made eAssist standard on all current Buick Regals!

    GM should make eAssist standard on ALL non-hybrid or EREV models, because it is the perfect first step to electrify every American vehicle, and GM must lead the way. Buick has two eAssist models, so Chevy must have more. If every American driver samples the efficiency and economy of a light hybrid, such as eAssist, then the full hybrids and EREVs will be their next vehicles, until GM can produce and sell full EVs and complete the electrification mission.

    Raymond


  9. 9
    nasaman

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    May 18th, 2012 (11:11 am)

    ronr64: E-assist seems like a no-brainer to me. I would like to see this mild hybrid approach put in all vehicles. Why not? But not as a cobbled on add on but rather designed in from the get go.

    Raymondjram: GM should make eAssist standard on ALL non-hybrid or EREV models, because it is the perfect first step to electrify every American vehicle, and GM must lead the way.

    I envision Revolo’s concept as a “kit” that 3rd party retrofitters can install on a great many cars, trucks, SUVs & vans of many sizes (up to 3.0L), whether FWD, RWD or AWD. It presumably employs an AC traction motor/generator/starter to replace both the vehicle’s starter and alternator. For the present, until Li-Ion batteries are less costly, it uses high-quality lead-acid batteries. The whole idea is to greatly reduces vehicle fuel costs at a minimum investment.


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    Steve

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    May 18th, 2012 (11:18 am)

    This reminds me of the bolt electric motors to the rear wheels conversion. I’m somewhat skeptical of the performance claims.


  11. 11
    kdawg

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    May 18th, 2012 (11:36 am)

    The result is a system that adds twenty-forty percent more power to the internal combustion engine’s output when needed without using any fuel.

    I take this to mean
    The R ev olo system helps during accelerations and prevents a lot of gas being used.
    During normal cruising speeds the R ev olo system isn’t doing much if anything.
    During deceleration, the batteries get recharged a bit.
    This process can go on for about sixty miles before the batteries are dead.


  12. 12
    kdawg

     

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    May 18th, 2012 (11:38 am)

    kdawg:
    Note: I had to re-type my post a few times to figure out why it was getting marked SPAM.I think the website does not like the percentage symbol.

    I also found out the website marks your post as SPAM if you use the word “R ev olo” (all as 1 word).


  13. 13
    Raymondjram

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    May 18th, 2012 (12:09 pm)

    kdawg:
    The result is a system that adds twenty-forty percent more power to the internal combustion engine’s output when needed without using any fuel.

    I take this to mean
    The R ev olo system helps during accelerations and prevents a lot of gas being used.
    During normal cruising speeds the R ev olo system isn’t doing much if anything.
    During deceleration, the batteries get recharged a bit.
    This process can go on for about sixty miles before the batteries are dead.

    This system does more.

    Most city drivers spend many minutes (maybe even hours) at very low average speeds, due to traffic jams and many traffic intersections. This is a “stop and go” situation. During the stopped state, the ICE is still running at idle or faster (especially if the A/C is on), burning gasoline, and spewing emissions and excess heat into the atmosphere. And the auto transmission is in “drive” gear, receiving torque from the motor, generating heat inside the case, while pushing on the drivetrain that is held back from movement by the applied brakes. This wears down the transmission parts and the brake pads.

    A “start-stop” system allows the ICE to be shut off completely (no idle, burning, emissions, or excess heat). The transmission has no torque so no heat generated inside the case, and less wear on the transmission and brakes. When the brake is released and the accelerator is depressed, the electric starter revives the ICE and power is reapplied to move the vehicle.

    So this light hybrid system, either the Rev olo system or eAssist, can actually save money by not burning gas, not running the ICE, and not loading the transmission or brakes. The added component cost will be recovered quickly, and the vehicle will gave longer service with less breakdowns or wear. The special belt-driven motor replaced the starter and alternator, and reduce weight at the flywheel. The only weight gain is the new battery and its cables.

    The additional benefit is that this electric motor can add HP and torque to the ICE when needed, giving V6 performance for the basic I4 ICE. Then the regen system will recover energy while slowing down the vehicle and reduce brake wear.

    Everything is in it favor. So if I could add it to my present 1995 Buick Regal, I will!

    Raymond


  14. 14
    nasaman

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    May 18th, 2012 (12:10 pm)

    IMG_6376_thumb.jpg

    This chart shows the phenomenal MPG gains they’ve been getting in tests of three small vehicles in its next-to-last line (Note the site address is embedded in this graphic, which is dark over there too, but at least I finally fooled the %$#@* “spam-killer” I’ve been fighting all morning!)


  15. 15
    joe

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    May 18th, 2012 (12:32 pm)

    I’m wondering if GM has patents on eAssist. If GM does have patents on eAssist, then other companies will have to license the technology.

    Does anyone know?


  16. 16
    Jackson

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    May 18th, 2012 (12:34 pm)

    Put e-assist on a Spark and carry a can to catch the gasoline overflow. 😉

    But seriously, the weakness of the you-know-what-olo is the lead-acid battery, IMHO. Unless it is cheap enough to be replaced every 3 – 5 years, I think Lithium Ion is the way to go (750 cycles for carbon-lead verses 2000 or more for Li/Ion).


  17. 17
    kdawg

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    May 18th, 2012 (12:39 pm)

    nasaman,

    I wish they would give actual numbers vs. percentages. I want to know the before & after MPG figures. Note those savings are only for city driving.


  18. 18
    Noel Park

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    May 18th, 2012 (1:07 pm)

    I was pretty interested in some kind of an add on system a few years ago, but none of them that were announced ever really made it to the market. Now that fully engineered production EREVs and BEVs are available, I’m not so interested in fooling around with something like this. Although, I might be able to get interested in trying it on my old S-10 if it becomes available and GM hasn’t done anything EREV related with its new Colorado replacement.


  19. 19
    Noel Park

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    May 18th, 2012 (1:09 pm)

    Jackson: Put e-assist on a Spark and carry a can to catch the gasoline overflow.

    #16

    We look to the day, LOL! +1


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    Neromanceres

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    May 18th, 2012 (1:45 pm)

    Interesting technology and shows GM is smart with their eAssist product (second generation BAS system).


  21. 21
    Raymondjram

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    May 18th, 2012 (5:59 pm)

    kdawg:
    nasaman,

    I wish they would give actual numbers vs. percentages.I want to know the before & after MPG figures.Note those savings are only for city driving.

    City driving is the “stop and go” condition I posted before. The light hybrid will help those types of vehicles more, because that is where most of the fuel is wasted. If you drive on highways all day, ou probably don’t need a light hybrid system. I do, because I live in a 250,000 population city and the highway near my home becomes a “parking lot” twice a day for thousands of ICE that “park” there. If everyone of those ICE were light hybrids, they will only use fuel when they are moving.

    We need hybrids and EREVs now! When batteries improve, then replace them with EVs.

    Raymond

    Raymond


  22. 22
    CaptJackSparrow

     

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    May 18th, 2012 (6:17 pm)

    That would be awesome here. We already have a market for that for millions of cars on the roads here. If it can bring a guzzling heap from 20mpg to 31mpg in city, for just $3,500.00 add on, sh|t, peeps would scoop that up. I highly doubt though that anyone that has a warranty on thier guzzler will make that jump. 🙂

    I’m not too sure on the battery though. I’d prefer to build my own pack with LiFePO4 cells.

    /I don’t see any possibility of an AER either.
    //I wonder if it can be set to a higher RPM, say like 3500rpm?. Tapering off at “1,800-2,000 rpm” seems like a REALLY narrow band. Most cars idle at 600-800rpm, no?


  23. 23
    CaptJackSparrow

     

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    May 18th, 2012 (6:39 pm)

    I recall that Net Gain Motors had thier product “EMIS EAS” that allowed cars to be hybridized.

    Anyway, seems to be a diffeterent approach.


  24. 24
    Noel Park

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    May 18th, 2012 (7:17 pm)

    Raymondjram: We need hybrids and EREVs now! When batteries improve, then replace them with EVs.

    #21

    i don’t see how anybody can disagree with that, LOL. +1


  25. 25
    Jeff Cobb

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    May 18th, 2012 (8:32 pm)

    CaptJackSparrow: I wonder if it can be set to a higher RPM, say like 3500rpm?. Tapering off at “1,800-2,000 rpm” seems like a REALLY narrow band. Most cars idle at 600-800rpm, no?

    It kind of does. The motor is KPIT Cummins’ own design also. AC induction avoids the availability of rare earth PM. The motor spins at a 1:1 ratio, I think off of idle up to 1,800 for the bigger motor, 2,000 for the smaller one. Not sure why it stops working at 1,800/2,000 except it’s probably a design compromise. The ICE more or less comes into its powerband after that, batteries are saved for lugging duty where efficiency is at its worst … From what they said they could design it around your criteria, but not sure cost, and they have not even tackled all the regulations they’d need for U.S. import yet. They feel they have to prove their design, and will …


  26. 26
    unni

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    May 18th, 2012 (9:22 pm)

    This kind of innovations are good. I really think hybrids are good stuff for next 10 – 15 years till fuel cells or some other technology can take off.

    eassist : I still think its a not a great one and it should be just a standard mode for all cars ( ex: like eco mode ). GM should really go for strong hybrids. Prius sells 25k+ in US/month. The prius C is very hot selling ( one of my friends went to check prius C and they are says its not even getting in lot , sales are just flying).

    GM: I really think GM should come strong hybrids like one in Prius C for the Sonic and Cruze line. If they really can’t make, i even suggest to license/source transmissions from Toyota or Ford. Summer is hear and gas prices are going up ( in Canada , BC ,Vancouver regular gas is $1.50 per liter ).


  27. 27
    solo

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    May 18th, 2012 (10:33 pm)

    How come these cars are showing a 35 to 40% fuel economy improvement but in the U.S. similar systems, at max, result in about 10% fuel economy improvement? Hmmmm.

    My guesses:
    1. Testing done in India is exclusively stop and go (mostly stop) in Indian mega-cities, thus skewing the results one could expect in another part of the world.

    2. Their test procedures are NOTHING like the EPA test cycles where the U.S. gets its fuel economy numbers.

    3. They are using the hell out of the battery which will shorten it’s life.

    4. The company is lying.

    5. All of the above.


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    N Riley

     

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    May 18th, 2012 (11:09 pm)

    In any case, it will be YEARS before we see something like this in the U.S. Still, it is an interesting further step in the right directions.


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    DonC

     

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    May 19th, 2012 (1:00 am)

    Retrofits will never work in the US because the EPA and CARB will kill any new product that improves mileage. They won’t intend to do this but they always do. For example, the only reason it costs so much to add some batteries now is the same reason why a $100 SCUBA gear pump costs $3400 when it’s used to fill a CNG vehicle — over regulation by misguided bureaucrats. Ditto for why a product that doubled MPG couldn’t legally be sold. Fact is, government regulation will kill innovation every singe time.


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    May 19th, 2012 (12:06 pm)

    solo:
    How come these cars are showing a 35 to 40% fuel economy improvement but in the U.S. similar systems, at max, result in about 10% fuel economy improvement? Hmmmm.

    My guesses:
    1.Testing done in India is exclusively stop and go (mostly stop) in Indian mega-cities, thus skewing the results one could expect in another part of the world.

    2. Their test procedures are NOTHING like the EPA test cycles where the U.S. gets its fuel economy numbers.

    3.They are using the hell out of the battery which will shorten it’s life.

    4. The company is lying.

    5. All of the above.

    My guess is #1. A 40% improvement on city driving isn’t hard to do if are getting 15mpg to start with, then you turn off the engine at lights and use a battery to accelerate. That’s where all the waste comes from. I’m guessing the highway fuel economy doesn’t change much or not at all. This seems to be the case with all of the EV’s which baffles me. I don’t know why they can’t gear the vehicles to use an electric motor efficiently at vehicle speeds over 70mph.


  31. 31
    kdawg

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    May 19th, 2012 (12:07 pm)

    N Riley: In any case, it will be YEARS before we see something like this in the U.S. Still, it is an interesting further step in the right directions.

    There are companies that provide a similar service now, but it costs 10X as much.


  32. 32
    kdawg

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    May 19th, 2012 (12:09 pm)

    DonC: Fact is, government regulation will kill innovation every singe time.

    Seems like a broad stroke there. Sometimes regulations require innovations. There’s whole industries based on regulation requirements.


  33. 33
    Dan Petit

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    May 19th, 2012 (2:05 pm)

    E-asist saves a lot of wear and tear on the overall drive train loading. Indirectly, it also inhibits the accumulation of a tremendous level of latent heat in both engines and transmissions.

    CRITICAL NOTES TO SHARE WITH EVERYONE;

    If you live in one of the hot southwestern states and drove a lot during the record hear of last Summer, I strongly advise that everyone remove the transmission fluid dipstick and wipe it off on a paper towel (folded over into quarter size). If you see grey matter on the paper towel, have your transmission serviced with only the original factory fluid chemistry with the exact service procedure that the OEM calls for. There is a seriously significant chance that you will save your transmission, as the record heat from last Summer has possibly degraded the fluid by a factor of two hundred to three hundred percent faster, just from last Summer. Reduce subsequent change intervals by at least a third of what had been stated by the owners manual.

    Change the cooling system coolant also, which could have built up a lot of acid from last Summer. Use only Factory fluids(!!!), as the old molecular structures of fluids still retained in systems will mix perfectly with the newly introduced compounds.

    86 Days above 100 degrees was the cause of all systems to degrade this far quicker.
    Many light trucks (***not GM or Honda***) have had a far higher incidence (with a large sample set observed) of head gaskets going bad.

    E-assist is a great help to the inhibition of the accumulation of destructive latent heat. Black vehicles are at even far greater risk, due the the extraction of cabin heat to be deposited into the air that must then cool the coolant and transmission fluids. Thus, far less heat can transfer out of these systems. This hotter overall situation really ought to be co-factored into all OEM new designs for all heat exchangers. Jags are being hit really hard, as they have far smaller intake grilles, yet many had been supercharged (making even more combustion heat). Jags ought to be the first to drop the supercharger and go to E-assist for the extra horsepower. (PLus, I would like to have Jaguar OEM data back again in our Genisys scanners if they would be so kind.)


  34. 34
    Eco_Turbo

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    May 19th, 2012 (9:21 pm)

    unni: GM: I really think GM should come strong hybrids like one in Prius C for the Sonic and Cruze line. If they really can’t make, i even suggest to license/source transmissions from Toyota or Ford.

    I think it would be easy for Voltec to do what Ford and Toyota do. The thing that would be difficult or impossible is for Synergy drive, (Ford, Toyota) to do what Voltec does. Get significant miles with no gasoline usage. 😎 Maybe Voltec should have an MPG mode, to get higher mpg on long trips, forgeting about AER.


  35. 35
    Raymondjram

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    May 19th, 2012 (10:01 pm)

    Dan Petit,

    I like your recommendations, since I live in sunny Puerto Rico where my home temperature never drops below 80 during the day, and sometimes reaches 100. But I wish to add another recommendation: always use the best fluids and filters, especially if specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

    My engine oil has always been Mobil 1 synthetic since I began using it in 1981. It may be more expensive, but it surpasses all oil specifications and keeps the engine insides clean and well lubricated. My 1984 Old Ciera lasted 25 years with me (I sold it to a neighbor and it was still running), and my present 1995 Buick Regal runs like new. So everyone who wants to keep their vehicle in excellent running conditions should always use the best materials.

    Raymond


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    Unni

     

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    May 20th, 2012 (2:02 pm)

    Eco_Turbo: I think it would be easy for Voltec to do what Ford and Toyota do. The thing that would be difficult or impossible is for Synergy drive, (Ford, Toyota) to do what Voltec does. Get significant miles with no gasoline usage. Maybe Voltec should have an MPG mode, to get higher mpg on long trips, forgeting about AER.

    Agree , The key is getting products out.

    In theory it may be only 4ET50 electric drive unit mated with 1.4 engine and a 0.6 – 1.2 kWh battery and getting a 60 – 65 mpg CS mode mileage from it with a 5 seat compact car costs $20k. . The sad part is only market exists and there is no other products than prius C is there. The looser are Hardcore GM buyers who wants efficient transportation on affordable cost.


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    Dan Petit

     

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    May 21st, 2012 (11:11 am)

    Raymondjram,

    I absolutely concur that Mobil 1 fully synthetic is the way to go, but I also strongly recommend the OEM filter and do not ever exceed 5,000 miles no matter what.